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Black Sea Grain Initiative UPSC NOTE

 


What is Black Sea Grain Initiative?

  • The Black Sea Grain deal endeavours to tackle escalating food prices emanating from supply chain disruptions because of Russia’s actions in the world’s ‘breadbasket’.

  • The deal, brokered by the UN and Turkey, was signed in Istanbul on July 22, 2022.

  • Initially stipulated for a period of 120 days, with an option to extend or terminate after November, the deal was to provide for a safe maritime humanitarian corridor for Ukrainian exports (particularly for food grains) from three of its key ports, namely, Chornomorsk, Odesa and Yuzhny/Pivdennyi.


  • The central idea was to calm markets by ensuring an adequate supply of grains, thereby limiting food price inflation.

  • Ukraine is among the largest exporters of wheat, maize, rapeseed, sunflower seeds and sunflower oil, globally.

  • Its access to the deep-sea ports in the Black Sea enables it to directly approach Russia and Europe along with grain importers from West Asia and North Africa. 

  • Russia’s actions in the East European country had disturbed this route which earlier used to ship 75% of its agricultural exports — precisely what the initiative sought to address.

Role of Joint Coordination Centre (JCC)

  • The deal put in place a Joint Coordination Centre (JCC), comprising senior representatives from Russia, Turkey, Ukraine and the UN for oversight and coordination.

  • All commercial ships are required to register directly with the JCC to ensure appropriate monitoring, inspection and safe passage. Inbound and outbound ships (to the designated corridor) transit as per a schedule accorded by the JCC post-inspection.

  • This is done so as to ensure there is no unauthorised cargo or personnel onboard.

  • Allowed to sail onwards to Ukrainian ports for loading through the designated corridor.


Main Goals

  • The main goals of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) include strengthening mutual trust and neighborliness among member states.

  • The SCO aims to promote effective cooperation in various areas such as politics, trade, economy, research and technology, and culture.

  • Maintaining peace, security, and stability in the region is another key objective of the SCO.

  • The organization strives to contribute to the establishment of a democratic, fair, and rational new international political and economic order.

  • The SCO's aspiration for a new international order has raised concerns among the U.S. and Europe, leading to it being labeled as "anti-NATO" due to proposals for military cooperation.

  • Heightened concerns emerged when Russia faced heavy sanctions for its actions in Crimea, and China supported Russia by signing a significant gas pipeline agreement worth $400 billion.

  • The personal bond between Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chinese President Xi Jinping has facilitated Eurasian cooperation within the SCO, particularly in the energy-rich region.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Black Sea Grain Initiative UPSC NOTE
Black Sea Grain Initiative UPSC NOTE
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