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El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) UPSC NOTE


  • The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a recurring climate pattern involving changes in the temperature of waters in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

ENSO Impact on Monsoon:

  • Meteorologists closely monitor Pacific Ocean temperatures ahead of monsoon season.

  • El Nino (warmer Pacific Ocean) often leads to decreased rainfall in India, while La Nina (cooler Pacific Ocean) leads to increased rain.

  • A recent study in Scientific Reports notes changes in the relationship between ENSO and Indian monsoon.

  • Central India's monsoon rainfall is now less linked to ENSO, while North India's connection to ENSO is strengthening.

  • Since 1901, the ENSO-Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) relationship has varied.

  • From 1901 to 1940, the inverse relationship was stronger; from 1941 to 1980, it remained stable; but from 1981 onwards, it weakened.

  • Monsoon rainfall relies on ENSO's influence on trade winds and the monsoon trough.

  • The monsoon trough brings rain to India and is affected by low-level cyclones known as depressions.

  • Climate change has led to rising ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean.

  • This increase affects the formation of depressions during the monsoon season, impacting rain patterns.

  • The study suggests that ENSO's impact on central India's monsoon zone has become weaker.

  • Monsoon predictions for this region are now less reliable due to various factors, including Indian Ocean warming.

  • Monitoring Indian Ocean warming and its impact on the monsoon trough and depressions is crucial for accurate forecasts.

  • An El Nino forming in the Pacific is expected to strengthen, influencing monsoon rainfall in August and September.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) UPSC NOTE
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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