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Global Problems and Governance UPSC NOTE

 


Problems faced by Global governance

  • Global governance is in bad shape. 

  • The world is being divided by wars amongst nations, and strife within them — wars with military weapons and with financial and trade weapons. 

  • The trajectory of progress must be changed to make economic growth more equitable and sustainable. 

  • Economists try to prove with numbers that poverty is reducing, and incomes are increasing for everyone. 

  • They should look around and listen to real people struggling in precarious livelihoods.

  • People experience realities which statisticians’ numbers cannot reveal. 

  • The planet is heating up inexorably

  • It cannot take the pressure of the present consumptive model of economic growth any longer. 

  • More economic growth will not solve the world’s problems. It must be sustainable and equitable too.

  • A new paradigm is required for global governance. 

  • In 2015, all countries adopted the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) to be achieved by 2030. Time is running out. 

  • Climate change is racing ahead. 

  • Rich countries are unwilling to find equitable solutions. 

  • Precarity of employment is increasing even in rich countries.

  • The SDGs describe 17 complex combinations of environmental, social, and economic problems.

  • All 17 problems do not appear in every country, and when they do, they do not appear in the same form. 

  • For example, problems of the oceans are immediately life-threatening to island countries but not to landlocked countries as yet.

  • Environmental problems are not the same in Canada and Barbados. 

  • Opportunities for decent work (SDG 8) are inadequate everywhere, but much fewer in countries in the Global South than in the rich North.

  • No country has only one of the SDG problems; every country has at least six or seven.

  • Calculations show that even seven problems (out of a possible 17) can combine in 98 million different ways. 

  • Clearly, one global solution for the environment, society, or economy, cannot apply everywhere.

  • The present theory-in-use of top-down problem-solving is conceptually flawed. 

  • It does not matter how smart the expert or manager on top of the system is. 

Importance of local governance

  • Complex systemic problems that appear in many places require local systems solutions that are found using cooperation and implemented by communities that combine solutions to economic, environment, and social problems.

  • India has proposed an approach of LiFE (lifestyles for sustainable development) to the G-20. 

  • It requires “coherent actions amongst stakeholders at all levels rooted in collective actions across society”. 

  • Principle 7 of LiFE also requires the world’s leaders to “recognize and amplify the role of local communities, local and regional governments and traditional knowledge in supporting sustainable lifestyles”.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Global Problems and Governance UPSC NOTE
Global Problems and Governance UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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