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Hoolock Gibbon UPSC NOTE


Hoolock gibbon

  • The hoolock gibbons are three primate species of genus Hoolock in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae.

  • Native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India, Myanmar, and Southwest China.

  • Hoolocks are the second-largest of the gibbons, after the siamang.

  • Males are black-colored with remarkable white brows, while females have a grey-brown fur, which is darker at the chest and neck.

  • White rings around their eyes and mouths give their faces a mask-like appearance.

  • The name "hoolock" is from "a language of Assam."

Distribution in India:

  • It is the only ape found in India.

  • In northeast India, the hoolock is found south of Brahmaputra and the North Bank areas and east of the Dibang Rivers.

  • Its range extends into seven states covering Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura 


  • Like the other gibbons, they are diurnal and arboreal, brachiating through the trees with their long arms.


  • The species of hoolock are:

  • Western hoolock gibbon - The species is found in Assam, Mizoram, and Meghalaya in India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar west of the Chindwin River.


  • Eastern hoolock gibbon - This species is found in east of the Chindwin River, such as the Mahamyaing Wildlife Sanctuary, and in south west Yunnan of China. 

  • Recent study published in April, 2021, in International Journal of Primatology confirmed that this species is not found in India as it was thought to be.

  • Skywalker hoolock gibbon - The Skywalker hoolock gibbon can be found in the montane forests of eastern Myanmar and southwestern China.


  •  It is the smallest and fastest ape and is found in tropical and subtropical forests in Southeast Asia

  • The current conservation status of gibbon species is alarming – all 20 species are at a high risk of extinction. 

  • Since 1900, gibbon distribution and populations have declined dramatically, with only small populations in tropical rainforests.

  • The hoolock gibbon faces threat primarily from the felling of trees for infrastructure projects.

  • Global Gibbon Network (GGN) aims to protect and conserve gibbons



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Hoolock Gibbon UPSC NOTE
Hoolock Gibbon UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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