India- Africa Relations UPSC NOTE


India- Africa relations

  • In the past 15 years and especially since 2014, India-Africa relations have developed steadily but more progress is achievable.

  • The continent Africa, accounting for nearly 17% of the world’s population today and reaching 25% in 2050.

  •  India’s rise as a global player is inevitably linked to the kind of partnership it enjoys with Africa.

  • Both India and many African countries were founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

  • This common alignment fostered cooperation and diplomatic engagements between India and Africa.

Economic Cooperation:

  • India has been one of the major investors in Africa, with investments in sectors such as telecommunications, energy, infrastructure, agriculture, and manufacturing. 

  • Bilateral trade 

  • India seeks to secure its energy supplies by partnering with African countries in the oil and gas sector. 


  • Long-term contracts for oil and gas imports 

  • Collaboration in renewable energy projects

  • India looks to leverage Africa's ample agricultural land to address its own food security concerns.

  • There is potential for cooperation in areas such as agricultural research, technology transfer, and capacity building.

  • African countries, rich in mineral resources. India's industries rely on African resources like iron, copper, aluminium, and zinc.


Infrastructure and Development:

  • Capacity Building and Human Resource Development: 

  • India offers scholarships, training programs, and technical assistance to African countries to enhance their human resource capabilities in sectors such as healthcare, education, information technology, and agriculture.

  • India supports infrastructure projects in Africa through aid and concessional loans. 

  • Transportation, power generation, telecommunications, and water management.


  • India provides medical expertise, pharmaceuticals, and affordable healthcare solutions to African countries. 

  • Partnerships in research and development, manufacturing, and supply of essential medicines.

Cultural and People-to-People Exchanges:

  • Traditional medicine, and yoga.

  • Indian Diaspora



  • India has been actively involved in UN peacekeeping operations in African countries, contributing troops and sharing its expertise in capacity building, training, and conflict resolution.

  • India and Africa cooperate in addressing climate change, promoting sustainable development.

Regional Groupings and Forums:

  • India-Africa Forum Summit (IAFS).

  • BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa)

  • India-Africa Science and Technology Initiative (IASTI).


  • Asia-Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC): It is an economic cooperation agreement between India and Japan aimed at promoting socio-economic development in Asia and Africa. 

    • It focuses on infrastructure development, digital connectivity, and capacity building in African countries.



  • Ethiopia, Sudan, the Central African Republic and other countries continue to battle with the challenges posed by insurgency, ethnic violence and terrorism.

  • Sharpening competition among at least half a dozen external partners such as China, Russia, the United States, the European Union, Japan, Türkiye and the United Arab Emirates.

  • Other countries strengthening their relations with parts of Africa to ensure market access, gain energy and mineral security, and increase political and economic influence.


  • China stands apart, armed with a consistent and robust policy since 2000 to become virtually Africa’s biggest economic partner. 

  • China’s role as ‘the infrastructure developer’, ‘the resource provider’, and ‘the financier.’ 

  • China has invested enormously in Africa in terms of money, materials and diplomatic push.

  • It is “essential for New Delhi to review its Africa policy periodically, stay resilient by making the required changes, and place a razor-like focus on its implementation”.


Policy recommendations

Political and diplomatic cooperation:

  • Political and diplomatic cooperation should be strengthened by restoring periodic leaders’ summits through the medium of the India-Africa Forum Summit; 

    • The last summit was in 2015.

  • Besides, a new annual strategic dialogue between the chairperson of the African Union (AU) and India’s External Affairs Minister should be launched in 2023.

  • Forging consensus among G-20 members on the AU’s entry into the G-20 as a full member.


  • The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) should have a secretary exclusively in charge of African affairs to further enhance the implementation and impact of the Africa policy.

Defence and security cooperation:

  • The government needs to increase the number of defence attachés deployed in Africa.

  • Expand dialogue on defence issues

  • Widen the footprint of maritime collaboration.

  • Expand lines of credit to facilitate defence exports. 


  • More can be done to increase the number of defence training slots and enhance cooperation in counter-terrorism, cyber security and emerging technologies.

Economic and development cooperation:

  • India-Africa trade touching $98 billion in FY22–23 is an encouraging development. 

  • This figure can go up if access to finance through the creation of an Africa Growth Fund (AGF) is ensured. 


  • A special package of measures to improve project exports and build up cooperation in the shipping domain has been suggested. 

  • A special focus on promoting trilateral cooperation.

  • Deepening science and technology cooperation.

Socio-cultural cooperation:

  • It should be increased through greater interaction between universities, think tanks, civil society and media organisations in India and select African countries. 


  • Setting up a National Centre for African Studies will be the right step. 

  • Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) and Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) scholarships awarded to Africans should be named after famous African figures. 

  • Visa measures for African students who come to India for higher education should be liberalised.

  • They should also be given work visas for short periods.



Amritsar,1,Art & Culture,1,August 2023,251,Courses,7,Daily Current Affairs,48,December 2023,189,Disaster Management,2,Environment and Ecology,54,February 2024,208,Foundation Course,1,GDP,1,GEMS Club,1,GEMS Plus,1,Geography,67,Govt Schemes,2,GST,1,History,2,Home,3,IAS Booklist,1,Important News,71,Indian Economy,46,Indian History,2,Indian Polity,56,International Organisation,12,International Relations,58,Invasive Plant,1,January 2024,240,July 2023,281,June 2022,6,June 2023,268,May 2022,17,Mentorship,2,November 2023,169,October 2023,203,Places in News,2,Science & Technology,66,September 2023,205,UPSC CSE,111,
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: India- Africa Relations UPSC NOTE
India- Africa Relations UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content