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Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC NOTE


  • Launched in 2019, it envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.

  • JJM looks to create a jan andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.

  • It comes under Jal Shakti Ministry.

  • The mission ensures functionality of existing water supply systems and water connections, water quality monitoring and testing as well as sustainable agriculture.

  • It also ensures conjunctive use of conserved water; drinking water source augmentation, drinking water supply system, grey water treatment and its reuse.

  • JJM focuses on integrated demand and supply-side management of water at the local level.

  • Creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse, is undertaken in convergence with other government programmes/schemes.

  • The Mission is based on a community approach to water and includes extensive Information, Education and Communication as a key component of the mission.

Progress Made so far & Recent Issues

  • The government's 'Har Ghar Jal' initiative aims to provide potable water connections to all rural households in India by 2024 under the Jal Jeevan Mission.

  • The mission is likely to fall short of its target, with only 75% of village homes expected to have drinking water taps by April 2024.

  • Various challenges have hindered the progress of the mission, including the COVID-19 pandemic, shortage of qualified manpower in states, the scale of the project, state-specific issues, and the Russia-Ukraine war affecting the supply of steel and cement.

  • The availability of water and water contamination pose significant challenges in states like Rajasthan, West Bengal, and Kerala, requiring efforts beyond providing piped connections.

  • Out of the nearly 19.5 crore households targeted under the mission, about one crore households (5% of the total) have not yet started work.

  • The mission aims to provide 'functional' tap connections, delivering at least 55 liters of potable water per person per day.

  • As per reported data, about 63% of rural households have tap connections, benefiting around 9.1 crore households since 2019.

  • However, there is a gap between reported and verified connections, with only 58,357 villages certified out of nearly 1,68,000 villages reported to have 'Har Ghar Jal' connections.

  • In Uttar Pradesh, the number of households with tap connections increased significantly, but only 3% of villages are 100% certified as Har Ghar Jal villages.

  • Similar situations exist in Rajasthan and West Bengal, where a small percentage of villages have certified themselves as fully connected.

  • Independent verification mechanisms, such as surveys and audits, are in place to assess the actual delivery of water services and the quality of services provided.

  • Some states have not relied on central funds for the programs and, therefore, do not self-certify their connection status by publicizing the Prime Minister and Chief Minister's images on posters.

  • Only eight states and union territories have reported 100% connectivity in all their villages, but most of them already had significant coverage in 2019.

  • Haryana, Gujarat, and Punjab were among the states that had over 50% coverage in 2019.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC NOTE
Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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