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Kosovo-Serbia Conflict UPSC NOTE

 

Kosovo

  • Kosovo  officially the Republic of Kosovo, is a country in Southeast Europe with partial diplomatic recognition.

  • Kosovo, a former province of Serbia, unilaterally declared Independence in 2008 and is recognised as a country by about 100 nations including the U.S. and a number of EU-member countries.

  • Kosovo lies landlocked in the centre of the Balkans, bordered by Serbia to the north and east.

Serbia

  • Serbia officially the Republic of Serbia is a landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Basin and the Balkans. 

  • It shares land borders with Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest, and claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo.

Balkan Countries

  • Balkans, also called Balkan Peninsula, easternmost of Europe’s three great southern peninsulas. 

  • There is not universal agreement on the region’s components

  • Comprising Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia 

  • Portions of Greece and Turkey are also located within the geographic region generally defined as the Balkan Peninsula

Kosovo-Serbia Conflict

  • Both Kosovo and Serbia lie in the Balkans, a region of Europe made up of countries that were once a part of the erstwhile Republic of Yugoslavia.

  • Kosovo was a former province of Serbia.

  • Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, and has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 101 member states of the United Nations.

  • Countries such as India, China, and Russia do not recognise Kosovo as a separate country

  • Although Serbia does not officially recognise Kosovo as a sovereign state and continues to claim it as its constituent Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, it accepts the governing authority of the Kosovo institutions as a part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement.

Ethnic Background:

  • Kosovo is a region where Serbs and Albanians, representing different ethnicities and religious backgrounds, have been living for centuries.

  • 1.8 million people living in Kosovo, 92% are Albanian and only 6% Serbian. 

Ethnic Background:

  • Serbs are primarily Eastern Orthodox Christians, while Albanians in Kosovo are predominantly Muslim. 

  • Serbs form the majority in Serbia, while Albanians are the majority in Kosovo.

  • Kosovo experiences frequent tensions stemming from the larger ethnic and political divide between ethnic Serbs and Albanians.

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