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Madhya Pradesh Strategy For Tigers UPSC NOTE

 


Madhya Pradesh Strategy For Tigers

  • Balancing the population of predators and prey was a key factor enabling a 50% surge in Madhya Pradesh’s tiger population.

  • An update to the 2022 tiger census published reported a count of 3,682 nationally, with Madhya Pradesh, for the second time in the past three censuses, reporting the highest number at 785. 

  • The State has reported a 50% rise in the number of tigers since the previous census.


  • Madhya Pradesh Forest Department’s strategy of actively moving tigers and their prey within the State, to balance predator and prey population, was a key indicator of success.

  • They have effectively restored low-density areas through 

    • incentivised voluntary village relocations

    • prey supplementation

    • reintroduction of species such as Barasingha (swamp deer) to new habitats like Satpura and Bandhavgarh,

    • the reintroduction of Gaur to Bandhavgarh and Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserves. 

  • Prey species such as chital (spotted deer) have been successfully supplemented in Satpuda, Sanjay Tiger Reserves, Nauradehi, Kuno, and Gandhisagar Wildlife Sanctuaries through translocation from high-density areas such as Pench and Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserves.

M.P. historically has a commitment to wildlife conservation and well-trained officers, active prey management is unique to it among other States.

  • This means, for instance, identifying regions that have, say, a large number of chital, and moving some to a region where there are fewer. 

  • Once populations of preys reach critical numbers in the new area, tigers – if there are too many in one part – are safely translocated here. 

  • This is a hard, labour-intensive exercise.

  • While nature usually corrects imbalances between predator and prey populations, the process can take a long time. 

  • Given the myriad pressures on the wild habitat — such as diminishing protected areas in forests and human-wildlife conflictactive prey management was necessary.

Lessons for Cheetah reintroduction programme.

  • The Kuno National Park in Madhya Pradesh is currently host to African cheetahs, with six of the 20 already dead since the first animals were translocated in September 2022. 

  • Experts says that to form a viable cheetah population, we need to follow similar principles of active prey management.

Tiger population in Madhya Pradesh 

  • India has 53 tiger reserves, with Madhya Pradesh accounting for six of them. 

  • Madhya Pradesh has the most tigers.

  • The most populous reserves are the Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, followed by the Bandipur and Nagarhole reserves in Karnataka.

  • However, five out of the six tiger reserves in Madhya Pradesh have over 50 tigers. 

  • This is not counting the 563 tigers that have been reported outside the reserves but within the State’s forest divisions. 

  • Tiger reserves are regions within national parks, specifically demarcated for tiger conservation.

  • Madhya Pradesh, as many other States, has more tigers outside the reserves than within them.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Madhya Pradesh Strategy For Tigers UPSC NOTE
Madhya Pradesh Strategy For Tigers UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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