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Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) UPSC NOTE


Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

  • Released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).

  • The index is a key international resource that measures acute multidimensional poverty across more than 100 developing countries.

  • It was first launched in 2010 by the OPHI and the Human Development Report Office of the UNDP.

  • The MPI monitors deprivations in 10 indicators spanning health, education and standard of living and includes both incidence as well as intensity of poverty.

Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

  • A person is multidimensionally poor if she/he is deprived in one third or more (means 33% or more) of the weighted indicators (out of the ten indicators). 

  • Those who are deprived in one half or more of the weighted indicators are considered living in extreme multidimensional poverty.

India’s Performance

  • A total of 415 million people moved out of poverty in India within just 15 years from 2005-06 to 2019-21, with its incidence falling from 55.1% to 16.4% during the period.

  • 25 countries, including India, successfully halved their global MPI values within 15 years, showing that rapid progress is attainable. 

    • These countries include Cambodia, China, Congo, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Serbia and Vietnam.

India’s Performance

  • In 2005-06, about 645 million people were in multidimensional poverty in India, with this number declining to about 370 million in 2015-16 and 230 million in 2019-21.

  • The report noted that deprivation in all indicators declined in India and “the poorest States and groups, including children and people in disadvantaged caste groups, had the fastest absolute progress”.

  • People who are multidimensionally poor and deprived under the nutrition indicator in India declined from 44.3% in 2005-06 to 11.8% in 2019-21.

India’s Performance

  • Child mortality fell from 4.5% to 1.5%.

  • Those who are poor and deprived of cooking fuel fell from 52.9% to 13.9%.

  • Those deprived of sanitation fell from 50.4% in 2005/2006 to 11.3% in 2019/2021.

  • In the drinking water indicator, the percentage of people who are multidimensionally poor and deprived fell from 16.4 to 2.7 during the period, electricity (from 29 to 2.1) and housing from 44.9 to 13.6.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) UPSC NOTE
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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