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National Education Policy, 2020 UPSC NOTE


National Education Policy, 2020

  • The new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 replaces the previous National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986.

  • The Ministry of Education formed a committee under Dr. K Kasturirangan, which outlined this new policy. 

  • The National Education Policy 2020 proposes various reforms in school and higher education, including technical education, that are suited to 21st-century needs. 

  • 5 foundational pillars of NEP 2020: Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability, and Accountability.

  • This policy is aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  • It aims to transform India into a vibrant knowledge society and global knowledge superpower by making both school and college education more holistic, flexible, and multidisciplinary and aimed at bringing out the unique capabilities of each student.

How is NEP 2020 different from the earlier policies?

  • Focus on holistic development: Critical thinking, Discussion, and Analytical learning.

  • Integration of vocational education with mainstream education.

  • Use of digital tools and platforms to enhance the learning experience.

  • The new policy emphasizes the importance of multilingualism and encourages the teaching of regional languages alongside English and Hindi with the much-needed flexibility.

  • NEP 2020 offers subject selection, software training in schools, transfer of credits, multiple entries, and exit system to allow for more internal autonomy to institutions.

5+3+3+4 curricular structure 

  • NEP 2020 calls for setting up of a  National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy.

  • Students will have increased flexibility and choice of subjects. 

  • There will be no rigid separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extracurricular activities, and between vocational and academic streams.

  • Vocational education will start in schools from the 6th grade and include internships.

  • The existing B.Ed. programme for teacher training will be replaced by a four-year integrated programme with high-quality content, pedagogy, and practical training.

  • A national curriculum framework for teacher education will be formulated by the National Council for Teacher Education(NCTE) in consultation with NCERT.

  • Mother tongue as the medium of instruction until Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond. 

  • Sanskrit to be offered at all levels of school and higher education as an option for students, including in the three-language formula.

  • A new National Assessment Centre – Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development (PARAKH) will be set up as a standard-setting body.

Higher Education

  • Holistic multidisciplinary education

  • Integration of vocational education, and multiple entry and exit points with appropriate certification.

  • An Academic Bank of Credit is to be established for digitally storing academic credits earned from different  Higher Education Institutions.

  • The National Research Foundation will be created as an apex body for fostering a strong research culture and building research capacity across higher education.

  • Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be an overarching umbrella body for higher education, excluding medical and legal education.

  • An autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, planning, and administration.

  • NEP recommends setting up an Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI), National Institute (or Institutes) for Pali, Persian, and Prakrit, strengthening of Sanskrit and all language departments in HEIs.

  • High-performing Indian universities will be encouraged to set up campuses in other countries.  

  • Similarly, selected top global universities will be permitted to operate in India.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: National Education Policy, 2020 UPSC NOTE
National Education Policy, 2020 UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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