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Stages of early revolution UPSC NOTE


  • Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles in eukaryotic cells, and chloroplasts in plant cells, evolved from free-living bacteria.

  • The ancestor of mitochondria was a proteobacterium that was engulfed by an Asgard archaean organism.

  • Descendants of this endosymbiotic union gave rise to animals, fungi, and plants.

  • Plants later acquired a photosynthesizing cyanobacterium, which became the chloroplast.

  • Over time, most genes of the endosymbiotic organelles were transferred to the nucleus, resulting in a more efficient arrangement.

  • Choices were made regarding gene retention, where archaean genes were preferred for information technology (cell replication), and bacterial genes were favored for operations and protein assembly.

  • Rajan Sankaranarayanan's group at CCMB in Hyderabad conducted studies on cellular processes in endosymbiotic relationships.

  • They focused on protein synthesis and compared animals and fungi with plants.

  • Plants, having undergone multiple gene sets during their evolution, adopted different strategies compared to animals and fungi.


  • Proteins are composed of amino acids, and nature uses only left-handed amino acids due to the poisonous nature of the right-handed ones.

  • Left/Right-handed amino acids are the stereoisomers in which the amine group of the molecule exists in the left/right-hand side

  • Animals and fungi adapt their mitochondria to deal with this discrepancy.

  • Plants, however, segregate the two policing machineries for amino acid discrimination in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.

L (Left Handed) and D (Right Handed) Amino Acids



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Stages of early revolution UPSC NOTE
Stages of early revolution UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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