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Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification UPSC NOTE

 Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification

  • Under the section 3 of Environment Protection Act, 1986 of India, Coastal Regulation Zone notification was issued.

  • In February 1991 for the first time the notification was issued.

  • The notification issued  for regulation of activities in the coastal area.

  • Regulations are made by  Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).

  • This notification was eventually allowed to lapse, and the Ministry issued a new notification which was finally passed as Coastal Regulation Zone Notification 2011 on January 6, 2011.

  • The Coastal Regulation Zone is defined as the coastal area up to 500m from the High Tide Line (HTL) and a stage of 100m along the banks of creeks, estuaries, backwaters, and rivers exposed to tidal variations, according to the announcement.

  • State governments are in charge of developing Coastal Zone Management Plans (CZMPs) and enforcing CRZ regulations through their local Coastal Zone Management Authorities.

Coastal Regulation Zone - Classification

  • CRZ along the country has been placed in four categories.

  • The notification imposed restriction on the setting up and expansion of industries or processing plants etc.

CRZ-I: 

  • Ecologically sensitive areas like sanctuaries, reserve forests, mangroves, coral reefs, turtle-nesting grounds, which could be inundated due rise in sea level.

  • Lie between low and high tide lines. 

  • No building is permitted except for operations related to nuclear power plants and defence.

  • Exploration of natural gas and extraction of salt are permitted.

CRZ-II: 

  • It contains designated urban areas that are heavily developed. 

  • Construction operations are only permitted on the landward side.

CRZ-III:

  • The CRZ notification,2019 issues the division of CRZ-III areas(rural areas) into two categories namely CRZ-IIIA and CRZ-IIIB.

  • CRZ-IIIA:

    • Area with population density more than 2161 persons per square km.

  • As per the latest notification the CRZ-IIIA areas will have no development zone (NDZ) of 50 metres from the high tide line (HTL) as compared to the 200 metres as stipulated in the notification of 2011.

  • CRZ-IIIB:

    • Rural areas with population density less than 2161 persons per square km. 

    • The CRZ-IIIB areas however will have a no development zone of 200 metres from the HTL.

Nb: The population density of respective areas will be measured on the basis of Census 2011.

CRZ-IV: 

  • The aquatic area from low tide line up to territorial limits is classified as CRZ-IV including the area of the tidal influenced water body.

  • There is no restriction on the traditional fishing undertaken by local communities.

  • No untreated sewage or solid waste shall be let off or dumped in these areas.

Implementation of the CRZ notification

  • The three institutions responsible for the implementation of the CRZ notification are :

  • National Coastal Zone Management Authority (NCZMA) at the Centre.

  • State/Union Territory Coastal Zone Management Authorities (SCZMAs/UTCZMAs) in every coastal State and Union Territory.

  • District Level Committees (DLCs) in every district that has a coastal stretch and where the CRZ notification is applicable.

Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification,2019

  • Based on the recommendations of Shailesh Nayak committee, the suggestions were given by the coastal states and union territories, and the CRZ 19 notifications were issued.

  • The Coastal regulation zone notification 2019 was issued to replace the 2011 notification.

  • CRZ 2019 develop the coastal region of the country in sustainable manner on scientific principles, keeping in view current global problem of climate change and sea level rise. 

  • The earlier notification of 2011 had freezed the floor space index or floor space area which was defreezed in the latest notification.

  • The 2019 notification issues the division of CRZ-III areas(rural areas) into two categories namely CRZ-IIIA and CRZ-IIIB.

  • The new Rules have a no-development zone of 20 m for all islands close to the mainland coast, and for all backwater islands in the mainland.

  • The notification of 2019 also promotes the development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal areas.

  • The streamlining of the coastal regulation zone clearing procedure is one of the important feature of CRZ notification 2019.

  • The Ministry of Environment forest and climate change will oversee the matter of CRZ clearance only for CRZ-I; i.e the ecologically vulnerable areas and CRZ IV (area between low tide line and 12 nautical miles seaward) areas.

  •  While for the other two categories namely CRZ-III and CRZ-II (urban areas), the power of clearance has been designated at state level. 

Coastal Regulation Zone - Significance

  • Coastal zones are places where the marine and territorial zones meet. 

  • There is an increasing need to protect these environmentally fragile places, such as mangroves and coral reefs, from pollution and the effects of climate change.

  • Furthermore, industrial growth and new infrastructure projects have been viewed as a danger to the mangrove ecology, affecting local livelihoods.

  • Improving the lifestyles of coastal communities such as fishing villages.

  • To strike a balance between development and conservation of the coastal environment.

  • The CRZ laws and regulations were designed to conserve coastal ecosystems by limiting human and industrial activity along the shore.

  • They also strive to enhance the livelihoods of coastal populations, such as fishing villages, create strategies to deal with the consequences of climate change and high-intensity storms, and secure the coastal areas' long-term growth.

  • The development of coastal communities is one of the four pillars of the government's ambitious Sagarmala programme.

Why it is in news?

  • The National Platform for Small Scale Fish Workers (NPSSFW) and other fishermen organisations have rejected the Coastal Regulation Zone Amendment Notification issued recently by the Union Ministry of Environment.

  • The Notification of Amendment — No. S.O. 2903 (E) — dated July 3, to the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification, 2011, was issued four years and six months after it was superseded by the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification, 2019.

  • The amendment provides for splitting clearance among two or more legal persons, which will provide a huge relaxation in terms of CRZ or environment clearance to any project or activity if its potential impact is also split into two or more parts. 

  • Environment clearances are provided on a case-to-case basis after various factors are considered and an in-depth study is made into the consequences of a project. 

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification UPSC NOTE
Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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