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Hubble Constant UPSC NOTE

 Hubble constant

  • Hubble constant, in cosmology, constant of proportionality in the relation between the velocities of remote galaxies and their distances.

  • It expresses the rate at which the universe is expanding. 

  • It is denoted by the symbol H0, where the subscript denotes that the value is measured at the present time, and named in honour of Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer who attempted in 1929 to measure its value.

  • Hubble established the cosmological velocity-distance law

velocity = H0 × distance.

  • According to this law, known as the Hubble law, the greater the distance of a galaxy, the faster it recedes. 

  • Derived from theoretical considerations and confirmed by observations, the velocity-distance law has made secure the concept of an expanding universe. 

  • Hubble’s original value for H0 was 500 km (311 miles) per second per megaparsec (one megaparsec is 3,260,000 light-years). 

  • Modern estimates, using measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the big bang, place the value of H0 at about 67 km (42 miles) per second per megaparsec. 

  • The reciprocal of the Hubble constant lies between 13 billion and 14 billion years, and this cosmic timescale serves as an approximate measure of the age of the universe.

  • Two details are required to calculate the value of the Hubble constant: the distance between the observer and astronomical objects, and the velocity at which these objects are moving away from the observer as a result of the expansion of the universe.

Recently in news

  • Researchers at the International Centre for Theoretical Sciences (ICTS), Bengaluru; the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune; and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) have proposed a new way to determine the Hubble constant.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Hubble Constant UPSC NOTE
Hubble Constant UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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