Download Learnerz IAS app from the Play Store now! Download



Kole Fields UPSC NOTE


Kole Fields

  • A Kole land is part of the unique Vembanad Kole wetland ecosystem in Kerala.   

  • The kole lands are located in the Central Kerala that spreads  over Thrissur and Malappuram districts.  

  • In olden days the kole lands were reclaimed from kayal area by putting up temporary earthen bunds and cultivation of rice were done by enterprising farmers during summer period from December to May.  

  • Peculiar type of cultivation carried out from December to May is “Kole” and means “Bumper yield”.  

  • It contributes to forty percentage of  rice production in the state.  

  • Rice Cultivation in Kole land started in 18th century.  

  • Temporary bunds were constructed around  each plots (padavu) in this Kayal land and dewatered and used for cultivation during December  to May.  

  • Dewatered waters from Padavu were stored in  canals/drainage networks between these padavu and used in later stage for irrigation. 

  • But this is insufficient and only with the help of good summer showers farmers get good yield. 

  • In Thrissur district, 13000 Ha of kole land are extending between  Kechery river and Karuvannur river.  

  • Kole land lie below the mean sea level ranging from 0.5m to 2.5m.  

  • As these lands are low lying areas, a day long rain is enough to bring the land under flood.   

  • During the monsoon season, the entire area resembles a vast sheet of water inundation and would remain in this stage for nearly six months and during this period, the entire land lies submerged under water.  

  • The soil in the kole lands are classified under the category of acid saline soil as it is acidic and contain elements of sodium chloride.  

  • The soil also contains elements of iron, aluminium, manganese and sulphur.  

  • By constructing temporary bunds at Munayam, Enamakkal and Idiyanchira, salt water intrusion to the agricultural land is prevented to a great extent.  

  • Now, instead of temporary bund the works of a  permanent regulator cum bridge is under progress.

  • The source of irrigation water for the kole land area are Peechi irrigation project, Vazhani Irrigation Project and Chimoni Irrigation Project.

  • Water released from Chimoni is stored and diverted to Kole lands with regulators constructed at Illikkal and Kottenkottuvalavu. 

  • Canals  in Kole land act as drainage channels during flood season channelizing flood water to outlets at Enamakkal, Idiyanchira, Koothumakkal.

  • Sluices  and Regulators along these canal network can be used  for controlling flow in fields, canals and rivers.  

  • Lifting devices like Petti & Para or Motor & Pump are used  for pumping. 

  • Petti & Para is the indigenous pumping device used for dewatering fields.  It is now replacing with axial flow pumps.

  • The Kole Wetlands is one of largest, highly productive and threatened wetlands in Kerala and it comes in Central Asian Flyway of migratory birds.

Why it is in news?

  • Saline intrusion, due to leakage in the regulators, is threatening the survival of Kole fields.

  • Over a period, all these regulators developed leakage and have turned almost defunct. 

  • The temporary mud bunds, which are built every year, have failed to stop the salt water intrusion causing huge loss to the Kole farmers.



Amritsar,1,April 2024,301,Art & Culture,1,August 2023,251,Courses,7,Daily Current Affairs,48,December 2023,189,Disaster Management,2,Environment and Ecology,54,February 2024,228,Foundation Course,1,GDP,1,GEMS Club,1,GEMS Plus,1,Geography,67,Govt Schemes,2,GST,1,History,2,Home,3,IAS Booklist,1,Important News,71,Indian Economy,46,Indian History,2,Indian Polity,56,International Organisation,12,International Relations,58,Invasive Plant,1,January 2024,240,July 2023,281,June 2022,6,June 2023,268,March 2024,238,May 2022,17,May 2024,213,Mentorship,2,November 2023,169,October 2023,203,Places in News,2,Science & Technology,66,September 2023,205,UPSC CSE,111,
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Kole Fields UPSC NOTE
Kole Fields UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content