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Kole Fields UPSC NOTE

 

Kole Fields

  • A Kole land is part of the unique Vembanad Kole wetland ecosystem in Kerala.   

  • The kole lands are located in the Central Kerala that spreads  over Thrissur and Malappuram districts.  

  • In olden days the kole lands were reclaimed from kayal area by putting up temporary earthen bunds and cultivation of rice were done by enterprising farmers during summer period from December to May.  

  • Peculiar type of cultivation carried out from December to May is “Kole” and means “Bumper yield”.  

  • It contributes to forty percentage of  rice production in the state.  

  • Rice Cultivation in Kole land started in 18th century.  

  • Temporary bunds were constructed around  each plots (padavu) in this Kayal land and dewatered and used for cultivation during December  to May.  

  • Dewatered waters from Padavu were stored in  canals/drainage networks between these padavu and used in later stage for irrigation. 

  • But this is insufficient and only with the help of good summer showers farmers get good yield. 

  • In Thrissur district, 13000 Ha of kole land are extending between  Kechery river and Karuvannur river.  

  • Kole land lie below the mean sea level ranging from 0.5m to 2.5m.  

  • As these lands are low lying areas, a day long rain is enough to bring the land under flood.   

  • During the monsoon season, the entire area resembles a vast sheet of water inundation and would remain in this stage for nearly six months and during this period, the entire land lies submerged under water.  

  • The soil in the kole lands are classified under the category of acid saline soil as it is acidic and contain elements of sodium chloride.  

  • The soil also contains elements of iron, aluminium, manganese and sulphur.  

  • By constructing temporary bunds at Munayam, Enamakkal and Idiyanchira, salt water intrusion to the agricultural land is prevented to a great extent.  

  • Now, instead of temporary bund the works of a  permanent regulator cum bridge is under progress.

  • The source of irrigation water for the kole land area are Peechi irrigation project, Vazhani Irrigation Project and Chimoni Irrigation Project.

  • Water released from Chimoni is stored and diverted to Kole lands with regulators constructed at Illikkal and Kottenkottuvalavu. 

  • Canals  in Kole land act as drainage channels during flood season channelizing flood water to outlets at Enamakkal, Idiyanchira, Koothumakkal.

  • Sluices  and Regulators along these canal network can be used  for controlling flow in fields, canals and rivers.  

  • Lifting devices like Petti & Para or Motor & Pump are used  for pumping. 

  • Petti & Para is the indigenous pumping device used for dewatering fields.  It is now replacing with axial flow pumps.

  • The Kole Wetlands is one of largest, highly productive and threatened wetlands in Kerala and it comes in Central Asian Flyway of migratory birds.

Why it is in news?

  • Saline intrusion, due to leakage in the regulators, is threatening the survival of Kole fields.

  • Over a period, all these regulators developed leakage and have turned almost defunct. 

  • The temporary mud bunds, which are built every year, have failed to stop the salt water intrusion causing huge loss to the Kole farmers.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Kole Fields UPSC NOTE
Kole Fields UPSC NOTE
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