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Minor Irrigation Census UPSC NOTE

 Minor Irrigation Census (MIC)

  • Minor Irrigation Census (MIC) — a compendium of borewells, tubewells, and other privately owned irrigation sources by farmers.

  • It was conducted by the Union Jal Shakthi Ministry.

Findings of the Minor Irrigation Census (MIC)

  • The latest report is sixth edition of the report reflect irrigation trends in 2017-18. 

  • The latest edition of the Minor Irrigation Census (MIC) finds that electricity is the dominant source of power to extract water, over diesel and wind and solar energy.

  • While the use of electricity showed a quantum jump from powering only 56% of sources in 2011 to 70% in 2017.

  • The report shows it as powering 76% of the sources — a slower growth rate.

  • This electrification of groundwater withdrawal corresponds to a rise in the use of tubewells and borewells that are capable of extracting water at greater depths.

  • While ‘dugwells’ or ponds that can draw water from a maximum depth of 15 metres remain the dominant source of groundwater, their number has declined.

  • The number of ‘shallow’ tubewells, capable of drawing water from up to 35 metres, too have declined.

  • However ‘medium-sized’ wells — capable of withdrawing water from up to 70 metres — grown.

  • Deep wells (beyond 70 m) increased.

Implications of the report

  • Excessive groundwater withdrawal has been a matter of long-standing concern.

  • The report does not discuss the causes for the increase of more powerful, deep-reaching tubewells.

  • The groundwater situation varies across the country. 

  • The State governments announce schemes giving farmers incentives or access to loans to buy such tubewells. 

  • However the lower growth in electrification is also likely to be a result of greater emphasis on energy-efficient water extraction.

  • Overall, 23.14 million minor irrigation (MI) schemes were reported in the country.

  • Out of all MI schemes, 21.93 million (94.8%) were for groundwater and 1.21 million (5.2%) for surface-water extraction.

  • Uttar Pradesh had the largest number of MI schemes in the country (17.2%) followed by Maharashtra (15.4%), Madhya Pradesh (9.9%) and Tamil Nadu (9.1%). 

  • Leading States in groundwater schemes are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana. 

  • Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Odisha and Jharkhand have the highest share in surface-water schemes.

  • The number of MI schemes increased by about 1.42 million between the fifth and sixth editions.

  • Most of the schemes (96.6%) were privately owned and small and marginal farmers having less than two hectares of land owned the majority of them.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Minor Irrigation Census UPSC NOTE
Minor Irrigation Census UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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