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Women’s Reservation Bill UPSC NOTE

 Women’s Reservation Bill

  • The Lok Sabha passed the Women’s Reservation Bill (Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam 2023) with more than a two-thirds majority.

  • The bill will have to be passed by Rajya Sabha by a majority of the total membership of the house and by a majority of not less than 2/3rd of members of the House “present and voting”. 

  • Bill will require ratification by at least 50% of states.


  • Reserves 33% (one-third) of Lok Sabha seats (inserted Article 330A) and state assembly seats (inserted Article 332A) for women through direct election.

  • Provides sub-reservation for SCs, STs, and Anglo-Indians among women candidates.

  • Inserts a clause in Article 330 A, reserving one-third of seats for women within SCs and STs in Lok Sabha.

  • Inserts a subsection in Article 239 AA, reserving seats for women in the legislative assembly of the National Capital Territory of Delhi.

  • Subsection reserves one-third of SC and ST seats in the Delhi Assembly for women.

  • The reservation period initially lasts for 15 years from the commencement of the act, with the possibility of extension by Parliament.

  • The implementation of reservation begins after the completion of the delimitation process based on the first Census conducted after the Bill's passage.

  • Seat rotation for reserved seats occurs following each subsequent delimitation.

Significance of the bill

  • Ensures greater gender representation; addressing gender disparity in politics.

  • Promotes intersectional representation.

  • Empowering marginalized women.

  • Will encourage more women to join active politics.

  • Increased representation of women in legislatures ensures that women’s voices are heard on critical issues, including those related to women’s rights, education, health, and safety. It can lead to policies and legislation that address gender-based discrimination and violence.

  • Challenging traditional gender roles and stereotypes, challenging the patriarchal nature of Indian politics and society.

Criticism of the bill

  • Women are not a homogenous community like caste groups, making comparisons with caste-based reservations inappropriate.

  • Critics argue that reserving seats for women contradicts the Constitution’s equality guarantee, as it may be perceived as a lack of competition based on merit.

  • The Bill doesn’t extend reservation to women in the Rajya Sabha and legislative councils.

  • The Bill doesn’t provide separate reservations for OBC women, despite OBC women constituting a significant portion of the female population.

  • Implementation of women’s reservation depends on the census and delimitation processes, which can be delayed or politically sensitive. The election cycle from which women will get their fair share is not specified.

  • There are concerns that women may be used as proxies by male family members, similar to what has happened in panchayats (local governments).

  • Some argue that reserving seats for women limits voters’ choices, suggesting alternatives like women’s reservation within political parties.

  • There can be resistance and backlash against women in leadership roles, which may not necessarily dismantle entrenched patriarchy.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Women’s Reservation Bill UPSC NOTE
Women’s Reservation Bill UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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