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India Labor Market UPSC NOTE

 Periodic Labour Force Survey(PLFS)2022-23

  • PLFS 2022-23 showed a significant increase in the Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) for both rural and urban areas. 

  • PLFS is published by the National Statistical Office (NSO) under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).

  • The LFPR for rural areas increased from 50.7% in 2017-18 to 60.8% in 2022-23, while the LFPR for urban areas increased from 47.6% to 50.4%.

  • The increase in LFPR was driven by both males and females. 

  • The male LFPR increased from 75.8% in 2017-18 to 78.5% in 2022-23, while the female LFPR increased from 23.3% to 37.0%.

  • The increase in LFPR is a positive development for the Indian economy. 

  • It indicates that more people are entering the workforce and contributing to the economy. 

  • The PLFS data showed that the proportion of regular workers has declined in recent years. 

  • This suggests that a growing number of people are finding jobs in the informal sector, which is often characterized by low wages and poor working conditions.


Indian labor market's recent performance

  • Between  April-June 2019 and April-June 2023, covering the period before the onset of the pandemic. 

  • The PLFS collects information on the earnings of regular wage workers, casual workers and the self-employed .

  • PLFS looks at the monthly wage earnings of regular wage workers, and the gross earnings of the previous month for the self-employed. 

  • For casual workers, average daily wages are converted to monthly figures.


Indian labor market's recent performance

  • The earnings for urban and rural workers were deflated by the urban and rural CPI for those periods separately.

  • Between 2019 and 2023, only casual workers both men and women, across both rural and urban sectors saw a net increase in their average real monthly earnings. 

  • Women casual workers experienced a 13% increase across the entire period.

  •  While male casual workers enjoyed a 10.33% increase. 

Indian labor market's recent performance

  • Significant inflation over this period ate away at the gains of workers, resulting in lesser real earnings for most workers in 2023 as compared to the pre-pandemic period.

  • Urban male self-employed workers saw a reduction in real earnings.

  • while rural male self-employed workers saw real earnings increase by roughly 14.67% in 2023. 

  • In the case of regular wage workers, urban women saw a reduction in earnings by 2.34%. 

  • Rural women in regular wage employment earned the highest gains of all real earnings 27.5%. 



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: India Labor Market UPSC NOTE
India Labor Market UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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