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Climate Change UPSC NOTE

  Major challenges facing by humanity in this century

  • The two most important issues facing humanity in the 21st century are climate change and food insecurity. 

  • Some of the ongoing effects of climate change, such as heat waves, flash floods, droughts, and cyclones, are negatively influencing lives and livelihoods. 

  • The world’s southern continents are reportedly experiencing severe drought due to climate change.

  • Which negatively impacts agricultural production and farmers’ livelihoods. 

  • Both population expansion and dietary changes are contributing to an increase in the demand for food. 

  • As a result of climate change, traditional farming practices are becoming less productive

  • Climate change is increasing the dangers faced by farmers, prompting them to re-evaluate their practices

  • Farmers are taking a variety of adaptation measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change

  • The need for a holistic strategy is driven by climate change’s dual challenges of adaptation and mitigation, and the pressing need for agricultural production to rise by 60% by 2050 in order to fulfill food demand.

Negative impacts of climate change on agriculture

  • Climate change is having a significant and negative impact on agriculture around the world.

  • The rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events associated with climate change are making it more difficult for farmers to grow crops and livestock.

  • One of the most direct impacts of climate change on agriculture is reduced crop yields

  • Rising temperatures and heat stress can damage crops and reduce their yields

  • For example, a study by the IPCC found that maize yields are projected to decline by up to 20% in some regions by the end of the century due to climate change.

  • Climate change is also leading to increased water scarcity in many parts of the world

  • This is because rising temperatures are causing more water to evaporate from the ground, and changing precipitation patterns are leading to less rainfall in some areas. 

  • Water scarcity is making it difficult for farmers to irrigate their crops, which is further reducing crop yields.

  • Climate change is also creating more favorable conditions for pests and diseases that can damage crops

  • For example, warmer temperatures and increased humidity are creating more favorable conditions for the spread of fungal diseases

  • Climate change is also leading to more frequent and severe extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, and heat waves. 

  • These events can cause widespread damage to crops and livestock, and they can also disrupt food supply chains.

  • Climate change is also having a negative impact on livestock production. 

  • Rising temperatures can reduce the quality of pastures and forage, which can lead to reduced livestock productivity. 

  • Additionally, extreme weather events can damage livestock infrastructure and disrupt animal health.

  • The negative impacts of climate change on agriculture are having a significant impact on food security around the world. 

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA)

  • As a viable option, climate-smart agriculture (CSA) provides a holistic framework. 

  • The Food and Agriculture Organization said in 2019: “Climate-smart agriculture is an approach for transforming food and agriculture systems to support sustainable development and safeguard food security under climate change. 

CSA comprises three pillars

  • (1) Sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes. 

  • (2) Adapt and build resilience to climate change.

  • (3) Remove greenhouse gases emissions.

  • Dimensions of climate-smart practices include water-smart, weather-smart, energy-smart, and carbon-smart practices. 

  • They improve productivity, deal with land degradation, and improve soil health.

  • The future impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity could be substantial

  • In India, crop yield decline owing to climate change (between 2010 and 2039) could be as high as 9%. 

  • In order to combat climate change and sustainably boost agricultural output and revenue, a radical reform of the agriculture industry is required. 

  • The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals aim to end hunger and enhance environmental management.

  •  CSA’s foundation is in achieving these goals through sustainable agriculture and rural development. 

  • The National Action Plan on Climate Change emphasises the role of climate-resilient agriculture in India’s adaptation measures.

  • Programmes such as the Soil Health Card Scheme use precision nutrient management to optimise agricultural methods. 

Importance of CSA in increasing agricultural output

  • CSA’s value in minimising and adjusting to the effects of climate change on agriculture is becoming widely acknowledged on a global scale.

  • These efforts are made in an attempt to create agricultural systems that are both resilient and environmentally friendly

  • Improvements in agroforestry, sustainable water management, and precision agriculture are all concrete examples of CSA ideas in action, and they are not limited by any one country. 

  • CSA promotes crop diversification, increases water efficiency, and integrates drought-resistant crop types

  • CSA’s value in minimising and adjusting to the effects of climate change on agriculture is becoming widely acknowledged on a global scale.

  • These efforts are made in an attempt to create agricultural systems that are both resilient and environmentally friendly

  • Improvements in agroforestry, sustainable water management, and precision agriculture are all concrete examples of CSA ideas in action, and they are not limited by any one country. 

  • CSA promotes crop diversification, increases water efficiency, and integrates drought-resistant crop types

  • all of which help lessen the disruptive effects of climate change. 

    • The importance of CSA lies in its ability to increase agricultural output while maintaining ecological stability. 

    • This correlation is not only a desired consequence but rather essential for long-term food security and sustainable resource usage in a warming planet.

    • The agricultural sector also produces a large amount of GHGs. 

    • The sector’s share in GHG’s emissions in 2018 was 17%. 

  • The Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming by reducing GHG emissions is tied directly to the success of the CSA

  • Agroforestry and carbon sequestration are two examples of CSA measures that could help India meet its international obligations and contribute to the global fight against climate change. 

  • Rather than being a rigid set of rules, CSA is more of a flexible concept with a wide range of potential applications

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Climate Change UPSC NOTE
Climate Change UPSC NOTE
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