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Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups(PVTG) UPSC NOTE

 What is PVTGs?

  • A PVTG is a sub-classification of Scheduled Tribe or in India that is considered more vulnerable than a regular Scheduled Tribe

  • PVTGs are typically small, isolated groups with a low level of literacy and economic development.

  • The Indian government has identified 75 PVTGs in 18 states and one union territory

  • These groups are considered to be at the highest risk of extinction due to a variety of factors like,

  1. Small population size

  2. Limited access to basic services 

  3. Loss of traditional lands and livelihoods

  4. Cultural erosion

  • The Indian government has implemented a number of schemes and programs to  focus on providing PVTGs with access to basic services, education, and employment opportunities

  • They also aim to protect PVTGs' cultural heritage and traditional livelihoods.

Important PVTGs in India

  1. Great Andamanese: Andaman Islands.

  2. Jarawa:  Andaman Islands.

  3. Onge: Andaman Islands.

  4. Sentinelese: Sentinel Islands

  5. Dongria Kondh : Niyamgiri Mountains in Odisha

  6. Bodo Gadaba: Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.

  7. Chenchu: Andhra Pradesh

Criteria to became a PVTG

A tribal group must meet following in order to be classified as a PVTG in India,

  1. Small population size: The tribal group must have a small population size, typically less than 1000 people.

  2. Pre-literacy and low level of social and educational development

  3. Primitive traitsThe tribal group must have primitive traits, such as a nomadic lifestyle, hunting and gathering, and a lack of written records.

  4. Traditional and distinct culture

  5. Strong dependence on forests

  1. Strong dependent on natural resources

  2. Social isolation: The tribal group must be socially isolated from other communities.

  3. Low level of acculturation: The tribal group must have a low level of acculturation, meaning that they have not adopted the customs and practices of the dominant culture.

PM PVTG Development Mission

  • There are 75 PVTGs in 18 States & UTs living in 22,544 villages (220 districts) having a population of around 28 lakhs.

  • These tribes stay in scattered, remote & inaccessible habitations, often in forest areas. 

  • A mission with a budget of about Rs 24,000 crore is planned to saturate PVTG families and habitations with basic facilities such as road and telecom connectivity, electricity, safe housing, clean drinking water and sanitation, improved access to education, health and nutrition and sustainable livelihood opportunities.

  • Saturation will be ensured for  PMJAY, Sickle Cell Disease Elimination, TB Elimination, 100% immunization, PM Surakshit Matritva Yojana, PM Matru Vandana Yojana, PM Poshan, PM Jan Dhan Yojana etc.

Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra

  • The Prime Minister launched ‘Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra’ on the occasion of Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas.

  • The focus of the Yatra will be on reaching out to people, creating awareness and providing benefits of welfare schemes like sanitation facilities, essential financial services, electricity connections, access to LPG cylinders, housing for the poor, food security, proper nutrition, reliable healthcare, clean drinking water, etc. 

  • The Prime Minister flagged off Information, Education and Communication vans in Jharkhand, marking the launch of  ‘Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra’. 

  • The Yatra will start from districts with significant tribal populations initially and by 25th January 2024 and will cover all districts across the country.

Birsa Munda and his role

  • Birsa Munda (1875-1900) was a renowned tribal leader, religious reformer, and freedom fighter from the Munda tribe in India. 

  • He played a pivotal role in mobilizing tribal communities against the oppressive rule of the British colonial government in the late 19th century. 

  • Birsa Munda's legacy continues to inspire generations of tribal activists and remains a significant chapter in India's struggle.

  • Birsa Munda grew up amidst the marginalized tribal communities who faced exploitation and displacement under British rule. 

  • He received his early education at the Salga Mission School, where he encountered Christianity and witnessed the conversion activities of the missionaries.

  • Birsa Munda's exposure to Christianity and the plight of his people ignited a deep sense of spiritual and social consciousness within him. 

  • In 1895, Birsa Munda launched a powerful movement known as 'Ulgulan,' meaning 'The Great Tumult.’ 

  • This movement aimed to restore tribal self-rule, revive traditional customs, and oppose British land acquisition policies and forced labor practices

  • He encouraged the practice of tribal rituals, festivals, and music, instilling a sense of pride and identity among the tribal communities. 

  • He also established a new religious sect, 'Birsait,' which incorporated elements of Hinduism, Christianity, and Munda beliefs.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups(PVTG) UPSC NOTE
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups(PVTG) UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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