Pinna Nobilis UPSC NOTE

 Why in News

  • A huge clam that was on the verge of extinction has made a comeback, with a surge in numbers in waters off Croatia.

  • The clam, known as the noble pen shell or pinna nobilis, started dying out as a deadly pathogen spread in parts of the Mediterranean around 2016. 

  • Numbers plummeted across the region and, until recently, scientists in Croatia only knew of around 10 surviving in their corner of the Adriatic.

Pinna nobilis

  • Pinna nobilis, also known as the noble pen shell, is a large bivalve mollusc that is native to the Mediterranean Sea

  • It is the largest bivalve mollusc in the Mediterranean, growing up to 1.2 meters (4 feet) in length. 

  • The fan mussel is a filter feeder, and plays an important role in the marine ecosystem by filtering water and removing impurities.

  • Pinna nobilis is a critically endangered species, and is on the verge of extinction

  • The main threat to the species is a disease caused by the parasite Haplosporidium pinnae.

  • This parasite was first identified in 2016, and has since spread rapidly throughout the Mediterranean Sea

  • The parasite causes the fan mussel to suffocate and die.

  • Other threats to Pinna nobilis include habitat loss and degradation, pollution, and overfishing.

  • Habitat loss is caused by activities such as coastal development, dredging, and anchoring.

  • Pollution can weaken the fan mussel's immune system, making it more susceptible to disease

BCG Vaccine

  • The BCG vaccine is a vaccine that protects against tuberculosis (TB) disease. 

  • It is one of the oldest and most widely used vaccines in the world.

  • It is estimated to have saved millions of lives. The

  • BCG vaccine is made from a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is a bacterium that causes tuberculosis in cattle

  • The vaccine is typically given to infants and young children.

  • The full form of BCG is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

  • The vaccine was invented by Albert Calmette & Camille Guerin, two French bacteriologists.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Pinna Nobilis UPSC NOTE
Pinna Nobilis UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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