Evolving security situation in West Asia UPSC NOTE


  • The conflict in Gaza has expanded beyond Israel and Hamas, involving targeted strikes by Israel in Lebanon and Syria, resulting in the killing of Hezbollah, Hamas, and Iranian commanders.

  • Hezbollah, from southern Lebanon, is engaged in a firefight with Israeli troops.

  • Iran-backed militias in Syria and Iraq have attacked U.S. forces in both countries.

  • The Houthis, Iran-backed rebels in Yemen, have turned the Red Sea into a battlefield.

  • U.S. airstrikes in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen aim to retaliate against Shia militias.

  • Chaos and instability are spreading, leading to Sunni Islamist militants attacking Iran and Iran retaliating by claiming to destroy an Israeli intelligence outpost in Iraq's Kurdistan, as well as training camps of Sunni Islamists in Syria and Pakistan.

  • The situation is characterized as a regional anarchy where countries are taking unilateral military measures, disregarding international laws and the concept of sovereignty, potentially risking a wider all-out war.

  • Jake Sullivan, the U.S. National Security Adviser, had mentioned the Middle East being quieter before the October 7 attack, citing positive developments such as the Abraham Accords, normalization efforts between Saudi Arabia and Israel, a quieter Iraq, a rapprochement between Gulf Arabs and Iran, and a ceasefire holding in Yemen.

  • Despite these positive changes, the passage emphasizes that they overlooked the ongoing crisis of Israel's occupation of Palestinian territories.

  • The October 7 Hamas attack and Israel's subsequent offensive have brought Palestine back to the center of West Asia, causing a deep security crisis, possibly the most significant since 1967.

  • Non-state actors' involvement and the lack of an off-ramp complicate the situation.

  • After 100 days of war with Hamas, Israel's achievements in Gaza are described as limited.

  • The Houthis, having survived seven years of Saudi bombing, are considered unlikely to be deterred by U.S. strikes.

  • Iran, aiming to showcase strength, is noted to have inherent weakness, contributing to its unpredictability.

  • The passage suggests that the old order, anchored by America's dominating regional presence, is now in tatters.

  • The proposed solution is a new security equilibrium in West Asia, calling for an immediate ceasefire in Gaza. Peace between Israel and Palestinians could serve as a starting point for broader regional security talks involving key stakeholders.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Evolving security situation in West Asia UPSC NOTE
Evolving security situation in West Asia UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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