India Meteorological Department UPSC NOTE


  • The IMD is a government agency responsible for weather forecasting and prediction in India

  • It is headquartered in New Delhi and has a network of regional meteorological centers and observatories across the country.

The IMD provides a variety of weather services,

  1.  Weather forecasts for the public, aviation, and agriculture

  2. Cyclone warnings

  3. Flood warnings

  4. Drought warnings

  5. Climate information

  • The IMD also plays an important role in research and development, and it works with international organizations to improve weather forecasting and warning systems.

  • The specific services and information provided by the IMD vary depending on the location. 

  • The IMD provides detailed weather forecasts for major cities and towns, as well as for agricultural regions. 

  • The IMD also issues cyclone warnings and flood warnings for coastal areas.

Mandate and functions

  • The IMD serves as the national meteorological service for India and holds the primary responsibility for all matters related to weather observation, forecasting, and research. 

  • Its mandate encompasses a wide range of functions, aiming to safeguard lives, support economic activities, and promote knowledge in the field of meteorology.

  • Maintain a network of observatories across India to collect real-time weather data on temperature, pressure, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, etc.

  • Utilize advanced technology like radars, satellites, and automatic weather stations to enhance data accuracy and coverage.

  • Issue short-range, medium-range, and long-range weather forecasts for both public and specialized sectors like agriculture, aviation, shipping, and disaster management.

  • Provide timely warnings for severe weather event like cyclones, thunderstorms, heatwaves, cold waves, and floods, minimizing potential damage and saving lives.

  • Conduct research on climate change, variability, and long-term trends.

  • Analyze historical weather data to understand past climate patterns and predict future trends.

  • Prepare climate outlooks and advisories for various sectors, including agriculture and water resource management.

  • Disseminate weather information through various channels like official website, mobile app, radio, television, and social media.

  • Organize awareness campaigns and workshops to educate the public about weather safety and preparedness.

  • Work with international meteorological organizations like the World Meteorological Organization to share data, expertise, and best practices.

  • Contribute to global weather forecasting and early warning systems.

Need for region-specific plans in India to improve climate resilience in light of changing monsoon patterns

  • In a study also found that 30% of India’s districts witnessed several years of deficient rainfall years and 38% many years of excessive rainfall.

  • Some tehsils in Rajasthan, Gujarat, central Maharashtra, and parts of Tamil Nadu that historically were dry were also getting wetter.

  • There were also changes underway in the northeast monsoon, which sets in during October, November and December but primarily impacts peninsular India

  • The northeast monsoon rain has increased by more than 10% in the past decade (2012-2022) in approximately 80% of tehsils in Tamil Nadu, 44% in Telangana, and 39% in Andhra Pradesh, respectively

  • The southwest monsoon accounts for nearly 76% of India’s annual rainfall, with about 11% from the north-east monsoon. 

  • That India’s monsoons are increasingly prone to long, dry spells and punctuated by torrential wet spells is well documented though how much of it can be explained by natural variability and how much from global warming is an active area of research. 

  • While revenue extraction guided colonial interest in weather at the regional levels, such analyses have a new, contemporary relevance.

  • This is to make region-specific plans to improve climate resilience and channel necessary funds and resources. 

  • Prioritising regional and sub-district forecasts over national ones, would be a commendable step forward by the government.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: India Meteorological Department UPSC NOTE
India Meteorological Department UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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