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El Nino and La Nina UPSC NOTE

 Potential emergence of La Nina weather pattern and its impact on weather and agricultural.

  • There's still uncertainty about a La Niña emerging.

  • But recent forecasts indicate a 40-50% chance of development by this September-November.

Global Weather Patterns:

  • Increased rainfallSoutheast Asia, Australia, East Africa, and parts of South America could experience above-average rainfall, potentially leading to floods and landslides.

  • Drier conditionsParts of South America, Central America, the Philippines, and southern Africa could see reduced rainfall, increasing the risk of droughts.

  • Shifted jet streamsChanges in wind patterns can affect temperature and precipitation globally, impacting regions like California, the Pacific Northwest, and the Southern US.

Agricultural Production:

  • Positive impacts: Increased rainfall in Southeast Asia and Australia could benefit rice and other crops, while drier conditions in some drought-prone areas could be helpful.

  • Negative impacts: Floods in Southeast Asia could damage crops and infrastructure, while droughts in other regions could reduce yields and strain food security.

  • Uncertainties: The specific impacts depend on the intensity and duration of La Niña and the vulnerabilities of local agricultural systems.

Difference between El Niño and La Niña

  • El Niño and La Niña are opposite phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.

  • ENSO is a climate pattern that occurs in the Pacific Ocean

  • El Niño is characterized by warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

  •  While La Niña is characterized by cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures in the same region.

  • El Niño and La Niña typically last for 9 to 12 months, but they can sometimes last for as long as 2 years. 

  • They occur every 2 to 7 years, but they don't occur on a regular schedule. 

  • Generally, El Niño occurs more frequently than La Niña.

  • El Niño and La Niña have significant impacts on weather patterns around the world

  • El Niño is often associated with increased rainfall in the southwestern United States, the southeastern United States, and northern South America. 

  • It is also associated with decreased rainfall in Australia, Indonesia, and the Philippines

  • La Niña is often associated with the opposite weather patterns.

  • El Niño and La Niña can also have significant impacts on agricultural production

  • El Niño is often associated with increased crop yields in the United States and decreased crop yields in Australia. 

  • La Niña is often associated with the opposite impacts.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: El Nino and La Nina UPSC NOTE
El Nino and La Nina UPSC NOTE
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