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Floor Test UPSC NOTE

 Why in news

  • The Nitish Kumar-led National Democratic Alliance government is all set to face a floor test on Monday to prove its majority in the Bihar Assembly.

  • On the eve of the crucial floor test, political parties in the State remained busy trying to keep their flock together.

  • All 79 MLAs of the Opposition Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) have been camping at the residence of former Deputy Chief Minister Tejashwi Yadav since Saturday night. 

  • 16 MLAs of the Congress returned from Hyderabad and went directly to Mr. Yadav’s residence. 

What is a Floor Test?

  • A floor test, also known as a vote of confidence.

  • Its a mechanism used in various political systems to determine whether the government (executive branch) retains the confidence of the legislature (parliament, assembly).

Purpose:

  • The main purpose of a floor test is to verify if the government still has the majority support of the elected representatives in the legislature. 

  • This is crucial because the government derives its legitimacy and authority from the legislature's support.

When a floor test is called:

  • There are several scenarios where a floor test might be called:

    • After a new government is formed: Sometimes, after elections, a new government needs to prove its majority in the legislature.

    • When the government's majority is questioned: If the government loses key members or faces defections, its majority might be doubted, leading to a call for a floor test.

  • Upon request of the government: Sometimes, the government itself might request a floor test to seek a fresh mandate or settle internal disputes.

How can the Governor Call for a Floor Test?

  • The Governor's ability to call for a floor test is a complex issue with nuances depending on specific contexts and constitutional provisions. 

  • In many parliamentary democracies, the Governor, as the head of the state, plays a crucial role in ensuring smooth functioning of the government.

  • The power to call for a floor test generally stems from specific articles within the constitution

  • In India, Article 174(2) of the Constitution empowers the Governor to summon the House and call for a vote of confidence to assess whether the government enjoys the majority's support.

  • While the Governor holds the power, it's not exercised arbitrarily. 

  • There must be credible evidence suggesting the ruling party no longer commands a majority in the legislature. 

  • This can be indicated by resignations, defections, or no-confidence motions submitted by a significant portion of the members.

  • Request from Chief Minister, In some cases, the Chief Minister himself may request a floor test to seek a fresh mandate or resolve internal disputes.

  • Deadlock situations, If the legislature is unable to function due to political wrangling or a constitutional crisis, the Governor might call for a floor test to break the deadlock.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Floor Test UPSC NOTE
Floor Test UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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