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X Chromosome UPSC NOTE

 Why in news

  • The molecular coating of the X chromosome is crucial to a process called X-chromosome inactivation which ensures that one set of X chromosomes in females remains active and functional in all the cells of the body while the other is muffled.

  • In recent times several international celebrities have spoken up about their diagnosis and subsequent struggles with autoimmune diseases

  • A majority of these celebrities are women

  • This bias is not just a fluke of nature but a reflection of a worldwide phenomenon

  • A 2023 study by the University of Oxford stated that about 10% of the population they had studied had autoimmune diseases of which 13% were women and 7% were men.

What is X chromosome 

  • The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes found in humans and many other mammals. 

Sex determination:

  • Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY).

  • The presence or absence of the Y chromosome is the primary determinant of biological sex.

Genetic information:

  • The X chromosome carries a large number of genes (around 900-1400), responsible for various functions like:

Brain development and cognitive function

  • Vision

  • Smell

  • Blood clotting

  • Immunity

  • And many other essential processes

Unique features:

  • In females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in most cells (except egg cells) through a process called X-inactivation

  • This ensures females typically only express one copy of X-linked genes, similar to males.

  • The X chromosome is larger than the Y chromosome and contains more genes.

  • Certain regions of the X and Y chromosomes share similar genes (pseudoautosomal regions), leading to males having two functional copies of these genes while females only have one.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: X Chromosome UPSC NOTE
X Chromosome UPSC NOTE
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