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Hoysala Dynasty UPSC NOTE

 Who were the Hoysalas?

  • The Hoysala Kingdom was a Kannada-speaking empire that mushroomed across  Karnataka between the 11th and the 14th century

  • Early history of the Hoysalas is not well-documented, they are believed to have come from the Malnad region of the Western Ghats. 

  • The Hoysalas were initially the vassals of the Kalyani Chalukyas, eventually breaking away from them and emerging as an independent state by the 12th century. 

  • Best-known rulers: Nripa kama II, Vishnuvardhana, Veera Ballala II, and Veera Ballala III

  • Hoysalas continued to expand their empire, even venturing into modern-day Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, before the last great king of the dynasty, Veera Ballala III, was captured during the Battle of Kannanur and subsequently put to death in 1342.

Contributions

  • One of the most profound contributions of the Hoysala Dynasty is the vast number of stunning temples built across their kingdom, both large and small, offering a glimpse into the period’s rich architectural tradition

  • The temples were built by all kinds of people, not just royalty. 

  • Also, “there was this idea of syncretism,” as evidenced by the fact that the same town would often contain Vishnu, Shiva and Jain temples. 

  • Idea of artistic agency, with many sculptures inscribed with the names or initials of the people who created them, sometimes even their family trees and origins

How becoming a World Heritage Site 

  • UNESCO states that the site in question needs to meet one or more of 10 criteria, which include :

Cultural

  • 1."To represent a masterpiece of human creative genius"

  • 2."To exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design"

  • 3.To bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living /which has disappeared

  • 4."To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history"

  • 5."To be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change"

  • 6."To be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance"

  • 7."To contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance"

  • 8."To be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant ongoing geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features"

  • 9."To be outstanding examples representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals"

  • 10."To contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation"

  • Additionally, it needs to meet conditions of integrity and authenticity and have an adequate system of protection and management to safeguard its future. 


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Hoysala Dynasty UPSC NOTE
Hoysala Dynasty UPSC NOTE
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