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National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) UPSC NOTE

 NHRC Accreditation

  • The United Nations’ Paris Principles, adopted in 1993 by the UN The General Assembly provides the international benchmarks against which National Human Rights Institutions (NHRI) can be accredited.

  • The Paris Principles set out six main criteria that NHRIs are required to meet. 

    • Mandate and competence

    • Autonomy from government

    • Independence guaranteed by a statute or Constitution

    • Pluralism

    • Adequate resources

    • Adequate powers of investigation

  • The agencies with Highest Rating (‘A’) for following the Paris Principles (The ‘A’ rating) can join the work of the GANHRI and the UN on human rights issues.

  • The NHRC got its ‘A’ rating in 1999 and kept it in 2006, 2011, and 2017 after a delay. 

    • The GANHRI had delayed it because of some problems with the NHRC’s staff and appointments. 

    • The current NHRC chairman is Justice Arun Kumar Mishra (who used to be a Supreme Court judge) appointed by the President of India


  • GANHRI is recognised and a trusted partner, of the United Nations.

  • It was established in 1993 as the International Coordinating Committee of National Institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (ICC).

  • It has been known as the Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI) since 2016 and is a member-based network organization that gathers NHRIs from all around the world.

  • GANHRI’s membership includes 114 national human rights institutions from all four regions (Americas, Europe, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific): 80 ‘A status’ NHRIs and 34 ‘B status’ NHRIs (as of November 2019)

  • Its secretariat is situated in Geneva, Switzerland

  • The decision over whether the NHRC is given an A or B rating will affect its ability to vote at the UN Human Rights Council and some UNGA bodies

GANHRI Observations

  • The NHRC’s ratings were put on hold in 2023 after concerns were raised on its composition procedure, the presence of police personnel in human rights investigations, and the lack of gender and minority representation in the committee

  • The meeting of the Sub-Committee on Accreditation (SCA) of the GANHRI worldwide will be held on May 1, as part of the five-year peer review for each member of the 114-member alliance



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) UPSC NOTE
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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