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Unemployment in Youth UPSC NOTE

 What has the India Employment Report 2024

  • The India Employment Report 2024, prepared jointly by the Institute of Human Development (IHD) and the International Labour Organization (ILO).

  • Released on March 26, revolves around “youth employment, education and skills.” 

  • It has analysed trends and patterns of the Indian labour market for two decades.

  • Including the COVID-19 years, and listed the “emerging characteristics of the employment challenges now confronting the economy as well as the impact of growth on employment.”

Why are educated youth also not getting jobs?

  • There port’s authors note that the proportion of India’s working-age population (aged 15–59) increased from 61% in 2011 to 64%.

  • In 2021 and is projected to reach 65% in 2036.

  • About 7-8 million young people are added each year to the labour force. 

  • Though the proportion of youth getting an education increased from 18% in 2000 to 35% in 2022.

  • The percentage of youth involved in economic activities decreased from 52% to 37% during the same period.

  • The author swarn that unemployment in the country is“predominantly a problem among youth”.

  • Especially those with a secondary level of education or higher, and that it has intensified over time.

  • In 2022, the share of unemployed youth in the total unemployed population was 82.9%.

  • They noted, adding that the share of educated youth among all unemployed people also increased, from 54.2% in 2000 to 65.7% in 2022.

  • Also, among the educated (secondary level or higher) unemployed youth, women accounted for a larger share (76.7%) than men (62.2%).

Why is women participation in the labour force low?

  • Santosh Mehrotra whose studies have been cited in several chapters in the report.

  • It’s a question of both lack of opportunities and unemployability of educated youth due to poor quality of education. 

  • He urged the government to ensure that the development of skills was separated from formal education

  • The ILO and IHD said the share of technically qualified youth was low in India:15.62% youth had vocational training in 2022.

  • But out of them only 4.09% hadformal vocational training

  • According to Mr. Mehrotra, the fact that employment in the agriculture sector has increased after 2019.

  • It is because of the lack of quality education among the youth, making it difficult for them to get jobs in other sectors. 

  • The report’s authorspointed out that most jobs in 2023 (90.4%) werein the informal sector; and that around half the jobs in the formal sector (45.2%) were also of an informal nature. 

  • Mr. Mehrotra stressed the importance of creating more jobs in the formal sector, pointing out that the unemployment rate among youthhad tripled between 2012 and 2018.

What are some of the correctives suggested?

  • There is a significant gender gap in the labour market, with low rates of female labour force participation. 

  • The gender gap in the LFPR has remained almost consistent over the past two decades, the report’s authors observed.

  • In 2022, the LFPR of young men (at 61.2%) was almost three times higher than that of young women (at 21.7%).

  • The gender gap was similar in both rural and urban areas. 

  • The report’s authorshavenoted that there is a large proportion of young persons, particularly women, who are not in education, employment or training. 

  • Between 2012 and 2019, there was an alarming increase in unemployment because of the decrease in women participation in the workforce, a trend which has been slightly reversed post 2019. 


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Unemployment in Youth UPSC NOTE
Unemployment in Youth UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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