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Indian state legislatures UPSC NOTE


  • In 2023, of the ₹18.5 lakh crore budget presented by 10 States, close to 40% was passed without discussion. 

  • In five States, the Public Accounts Committee (PAC), which examines accounts of State governments, did not table any reports in the year considered. 

  • Moreover, five State legislatures passed all Bills on the day they were introduced or the next day. 

  • As many as 20 States also saw 84 Ordinances being promulgated in 2023.

  • These observations are based on PRS Legislative Research’s Annual Review of State Laws 2023. 

  • Once the Finance Minister announces the Budget, it goes for general discussion. 

  • Following this, there is a scrutiny of demands by committees. 

  • After this, there is discussion and voting on Ministry expenditure. 

  • However, in 10 States for which data was available, 36% of the expenditure demands were voted on and passed without being discussed. 

  • Madhya Pradesh passed 85% of its ₹3.14 lakh crore Budget without discussion, the highest among the ten States. Kerala came second with 78%, followed by Jharkhand (75%) and West Bengal (74%)

  • The PAC, typically chaired by the Leader of the Opposition or a senior member from the Opposition, scrutinises the accounts of State governments and State reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General. 

  • However, in 2023, the PAC held 24 sittings and tabled 16 reports on average in the States considered. 

  • In five of the 13 States for which data was available — Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Maharashtra and Odisha — the PAC did not table any reports. 

  • Alarmingly, the PAC in Maharashtra neither met nor released a report during the year. 

  • In contrast, the PAC in Tamil Nadu tabled 95 reports followed by Himachal Pradesh where the committee tabled 75 reports. 

  • Both Uttar Pradesh and Bihar had 50 sittings or more by the PAC though not a single report was tabled in the latter

  • An analysis of the time taken by State legislatures to pass Bills shows that many were passed quickly with minimal debate. 

  • In fact, 44% of the Bills were passed either on the same day they were introduced in the Assembly or the next day. 

  • The figure is consistent with the trend observed in 2022 (56%) and 2021 (44%). 

  • In Gujarat, Jharkhand, Mizoram, Puducherry, and Punjab, all Bills were passed on the day of introduction or the next day. 

  • In 13 of 28 State legislatures, Bills were passed within five days of introduction. 

  • Kerala and Meghalaya took more than five days to pass more than 90% of their Bills. 

  • About 55% of Bills in Rajasthan were also passed after more than five days of deliberation

  • The Constitution grants the Governor the power to promulgate Ordinances, ie, formally announce certain temporary laws, when the State Legislative Assembly is not in session.

  • 84 Ordinances were promulgated in 20 States covering a range of subjects including, new universities (Uttar Pradesh), public examinations (Uttarakhand), and ownership of apartments (Maharashtra). 

  • The highest number of Ordinances was promulgated by Uttar Pradesh (20), followed by Andhra Pradesh (11), and Maharashtra (9)



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Indian state legislatures UPSC NOTE
Indian state legislatures UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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