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Pallavaram monolithic rock UPSC NOTE

 Pallavaram Rock-cut monolithic cave

  • It is located in Pallavaram, Tambaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

  • According to K. V. Raman, a retired professor of Ancient History and Archaeology, the hill had a rock-cut monolithic cave made in the time of Mahendravarman I (600-630 AD)

  • In his book, The Early History of The Madras Region, he says it was considered by archaeologists to be one of the earliest of its kind attempted by a Pallava king in south India.

  • The cave was said to have a pillared hall 

  • There were no doors or figures at the entrance. 

  • The architrave above the capitals of one pillar contained inscriptions of King Mahendravarman I, who is said to have done pioneering work in scooping out rocks to construct temples, without using brick, mortar, or timber.

  • The hill also have Asthana-E-Moula Ali Dargah, popularly known as Moula Ali Dargah 

  • The Dargah is actually an Imambara belonging to the Shia Muslims. 

  • There is no grave of any saint here like other Dargahs. 

  • It is a place where people gather for Majlis to mourn those who were martyred in the Battle of Karbala, including the grandson of Prophet Muhammad

Mahendravarman I

  • Mahendravarman I (600–630 CE) was a Pallava emperor who ruled the Southern portion of present-day Andhra region and Northern regions of what forms present-day Tamil Nadu in India in the early 7th century. 

  • He was a scholar, painter, architect, musician

  • He was the son of Simhavishnu, who defeated the Kalabhras and re-established the Pallava kingdom.

  • During his reign, the Chalukya king Pulakeshin II attacked the Pallava kingdom

  • While the Sittanavasal village is dated from 1st century BC to 10th century AD when Jainism flourished here, the Temple-cave was initially dated to Pallava King Mahendravarman I (580–630 AD) prior to his conversion from Jainism to Hinduism as a Shaivite.

  • Fine examples of his rock-cut temples can be witnessed at Mahabalipuram, (Satyagirinathar and Satyagirishwarar twin temples), Seeyamangalam (the Avanibhajana Pallaveswaram Siva temple) in North Arcot district and the upper rock-cut temple at Trichy

  • The Pallavas fought a series of wars in the northern Vengi region, before Mahendravarman decimated his chief enemies at Pullalur (according to Pallava grants at Kuram, Kasakudi and Tadantottam). 

  • Although Mahendravarman saved his capital, he lost the northern provinces to Pulakeshin.

  •  Tamil literature flourished under his rule, with the rise in popularity of Tevaram written by Appar and Sambandhar. 

  • Mahendravarman I was the author of the play Mattavilasa Prahasana which is a Sanskrit satire

  • During his period "Bhagavadajjukam", another satire (prahasan), was written by Bodhayan

  • King Mahendravarman mentioned this on a stone inscription in Mamandur along with his own Mattavilasa Prahasana.

  • Mahendravarman was succeeded to the throne by his more famous son Narasimhavarman I in 630 CE. who defeated Pulakeshin II of Chalukya dynasty and ransacked the Chalukyan capital city of Vatapi (also known as Badami)

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Pallavaram monolithic rock UPSC NOTE
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