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Conservation breeding programme UPSC NOTE

 Conservation breeding programme

  • The Conservation Breeding Programme is a science of conserving a species by preventing imminent population collapse in the wild due to a large number of eliminative pressures (i.e. habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, industrialization, poaching, illegal trade and climate change etc.). 

  • The aim of the Conservation Breeding Programme is to conserve the genetic diversity of the species and restock or reintroduce the species to re-establish self sustaining population in its natural wild habitat.

  • The zoo plays major role in helping conserving a species through ex–situ conservation breeding programme. 

  • Indira Gandhi Zoological Park (IGZP) is making significant strides in conservation breeding of many threatened species like wild dog and striped hyena

    • Indira Gandhi Zoological Park is located amidst Kambalakonda Reserve Forest in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It is the third largest zoo in the country

  • IGZP has seen successful conservation breeding of species such as the Indian grey wolf, ring-tailed lemur, Indian bison, blue and gold macaw, jungle cat and eclectus parrot

Striped hyena

  • Striped hyenas, one of the three hyena species in the world, are listed as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), as the global population continues to be affected due to habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, poaching, and illegal wildlife trade.

  • It is native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent

  •  It is placed under CITES Appendix III

  • Amendment Bill of 2022 upgraded the status of Striped Hyenas to Schedule I of WPA

Asiatic wild dogs (Dhole)

  • The dhole is a canid (mammal of the dog family) native to Central, South, East and Southeast Asia

  • The dhole is a highly social animal, living in large clans without rigid dominance hierarchies and containing multiple breeding females

  • It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List

  • Placed under CITES Appendix II

  • Dhole is a Schedule II species under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Indian grey wolf

  • The Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) is a subspecies of gray wolf that ranges from Southwest Asia to the Indian subcontinent

  • It is intermediate in size between the Himalayan wolf and the Arabian wolf, and lacks the former's luxuriant winter coat due to it living in warmer conditions.

  • IUCN Red list : Least concern

  • Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972: Schedule I

  • CITES : Appendix 1

Ring-tailed lemur

  • The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a medium- to larger-sized strepsirrhine (wet-nosed) primate and the most internationally recognized lemur species, owing to its long, black-and-white, ringed tail.

  • Like all lemurs, it is endemic to the island of Madagascar

  • IUCN Red list : Endangered

  • CITES : Appendix 1

Indian bison

  • The Indian Bison or Gaur (Bos gaurus) is the tallest species of wild cattle found in India and largest extant bovine.

  • Approximately 85% of the population of Gaur is  present in India.

  • It is native to South and Southeast Asia (Burma and Thailand)

  • In India, they are very much prevalent in the Western Ghats

  • They prefer evergreen forests and moist deciduous forests.

    • However, they can survive in dry deciduous forests also.

  • They are not found in the Himalayas with an altitude greater than 6,000 ft.

    • They generally stick to the foothills only.


  • IUCN Red list : Vulnerable

  • WPA : Schedule I

  • CITES : Appendix I 

Blue and gold macaw

  • is a large Neotropical parrot with a mostly blue dorsum, light yellow/orange venter, and gradient hues of green on top of its head. 

  • It inhabits forest, woodland and savannah of tropical Central and South America, as well as the island of Trinidad in the Caribbean

  • They are popular in aviculture because of their striking color, ability to talk, ready availability in the marketplace, and close bonding to humans

  • IUCN Red list : Least concern

  • CITES : Appendix II 

Jungle cat 

  • The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat, swamp cat and jungle lynx, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, the Caucasus, South and Southeast Asia and southern China

  • It inhabits foremost wetlands like swamps, littoral and riparian areas with dense vegetation.

  • IUCN red list : Least concern

  • CITES : Appendix II

  • Wildlife (Protection) Act : Schedule II 

Eclectus parrot

  • Eclectus is a genus of parrot, the Psittaciformes, which consists of four known extant species known as eclectus parrots and the extinct Eclectus infectus, the oceanic eclectus parrot. 

  • The extant eclectus parrots are medium-sized parrots native to regions of Oceania, particularly New Guinea and Australia

  • Males are mostly bright green, females are predominantly bright red.

  • IUCN red list : Least concern

  • CITES : Appendix II


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Conservation breeding programme UPSC NOTE
Conservation breeding programme UPSC NOTE
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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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