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Palestine state UPSC NOTE

 The Story So Far

  • Hamas launched an attack on Israel on October 7, 2023.

  • Israel's ongoing war in Gaza has resulted in significant destruction and approximately 36,000 deaths in Gaza.

  • The conflict has renewed international focus on the Palestine question.

  • Increased global support for a future Palestinian state.

  • Spain, Ireland, and Norway recently recognized the Palestinian state.

  • Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia and Jordan, emphasize that lasting peace in the region requires resolving the Palestine issue.

Two-State Solution:

  • An internationally recognized solution involves creating an Arab state and a Jewish state from historical Palestine.

  • Divide the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea into an Arab state and a Jewish state.

  • Israel was established in 1948, but a Palestinian state has not yet been realized.

  • Palestinian territories have been under Israeli occupation since 1967.

  • The two-state solution today means establishing a sovereign Palestinian state with full rights under the UN Charter.

Origins of the Two-State Solution

  • Peel Commission (1936): Proposed partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states.

  • Arabs rejected the proposal.

  • UNSCOP Plan (1947): Proposed division into a Jewish state, an Arab state, and an international territory (Jerusalem).

  • Jews accepted, Arabs rejected the plan.

  • Zionists declared the state of Israel in 1948, leading to the first Arab-Israeli war.

Post-War Developments:

  • Israel expanded its territory by 22% beyond the UN proposal by 1949.

  • Israel captured additional territories in 1967 Six-Day War: West Bank, East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights.

  • Only Sinai was returned to Egypt after the 1978 Camp David Accords.

Palestinian Nationalism:

  • Strengthened in the 1960s under the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

  • PLO shifted from demanding all of Palestine to accepting a two-state solution based on 1967 borders.

Peace Processes:

  • Camp David Accords (1978): Framework for Middle East peace, including establishing Palestinian autonomy.

  • Oslo Accords (1993 and 1995): Formalized the two-state solution, established the Palestinian National Authority.

Hurdles to Achieving the Two-State Solution

  • Assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 1995.

  • Rise of right-wing Likud party under Benjamin Netanyahu.

  • Opposition from Hamas to the Oslo Accords.

  • Israel lacks a clearly demarcated border and is considered expansionist.

  • Continued construction of illegal Jewish settlements in Palestinian territories.

  • Approximately 700,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

  • Political challenges in relocating settlers.

  • Palestinians claim East Jerusalem as their capital.

  • Israel claims all of Jerusalem as its eternal capital.

  • Around 700,000 Palestinians displaced in 1948.

  • Israel rejects the return of Palestinian refugees.

Current Stance and Challenges

  • Right-wing leadership shows no willingness to make concessions.

  • Preference for maintaining the status quo of occupation.

  • Palestinian Perspective:

  • Desire to break the status quo and achieve sovereignty.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Palestine state UPSC NOTE
Palestine state UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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