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Tonga volcano UPSC NOTE

 Tonga volcano 

  • The Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano is in the western South Pacific Ocean, west of the main inhabited islands in the Kingdom of Tonga.

  • It is one of 12 confirmed submarine volcanoes along the Tofua Arc, a segment of the larger Tonga-Kermadec volcanic arc.

  • The Tonga-Kermadec arc formed as a result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Indo-Australian Plate.

  • It is an undersea Volcano consisting of two small uninhabited islands, Hunga-Ha’apai and Hunga-Tonga.

Tonga volcano 

Unusual climate impacts

  • Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (Hunga Tonga for short) erupted on January 15, 2022

  • It created a tsunami, which triggered warnings across the entire Pacific basin, and sent sound waves around the globe multiple times.

  • Usually, the sulphur dioxide in the smoke of a volcano cools the earth’s surface for a short period. 

  • Hunga Tonga was an underwater volcano, so it produced little smoke and a lot of water vapour, which shot into the stratosphere

  • Water vapour in the stratosphere has two main effects. 

  • One, it helps in the chemical reactions that destroy the ozone layer, and two, it is a very potent greenhouse gas.

  • The volcano seems to change the way some waves travel through the atmosphere

  • And atmospheric waves are responsible for highs and lows, which directly influence our weather.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Tonga volcano UPSC NOTE
Tonga volcano UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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