Download Learnerz IAS app from the Play Store now! Download



Eradicating polio UPSC NOTE

 Crucial role of polio research and 2 vaccines

  • The inability to culture polio in non-nerve cells was a major roadblock to developing a polio vaccine. 

  • John F. Enders and his team made it possible for the poliovirus to be mass-produced for vaccine research

  • Jonas Salk made the first successful vaccine using Enders’ method to grow the virus. 

  • He inactivated the virus by treating it with formaldehyde, and injected it into his test subjects. 

  • The fragments of the inactivated virus were able to induce immunity  in their bodies. 

  • Importantly, since the vaccine was introduced into the muscle, it generated systemic immunity.

  • Soon after Salk made his inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), Albert Sabin developed another vaccine that contained live polio strains weakened by growing them serially in macaque cells, making them unfit for human infection. 

  • Since Sabin’s vaccine contained live virus particles, it had to rely on its natural mode of infection and was therefore administered orally

  • This was the oral polio vaccine (OPV)

  • Since the OPV went into the stomach, it induced a powerful protective mucosal immune response right where the virus would have to begin its infection.

  • The OPV had multiple advantages over the IPV

  • First, the vaccine induced a protective response at the viral entry site — the gut— allowing it to provide a much greater degree of protection relative to the IPV

  • Second, the OPV was administered orally and didn’t require syringes or trained personnel for its administration.

  • Occasionally, the weakened virus in the OPV would revert, and do the very job it was designed to prevent: cause polio. 

  • On the other hand, the IPV, while being a less potent vaccine, contained inactivated virus particles and carried no risk of causing vaccine-induced polio.


  • Polio eradication is one of the top priorities of the World Health Organisation (WHO). 

  • Since Africa was declared polio-free in August 2020, the wild poliovirus has been restricted to rural pockets of Afghanistan and Pakistan

  • But according to a recent report in Science, the virus is beginning to reappear in big cities in these two countries

  • This reemergence is a result of vaccine hesitancy due to misinformation, conflict, poverty, and limited access to these isolated regions. 

  • The WHO’s Global Polio Eradication Initiative is thus set to miss its deadline of eradicating polio by the end of 2024.



Amritsar,1,April 2024,301,Art & Culture,1,August 2023,251,Courses,7,Daily Current Affairs,48,December 2023,189,Disaster Management,2,Environment and Ecology,193,February 2024,228,Foundation Course,1,GDP,1,GEMS Club,1,GEMS Plus,1,Geography,191,Govt Schemes,2,GS 2,1,GS1,6,GS2,68,GS3,26,GST,1,History,11,Home,3,IAS Booklist,1,Important News,71,Indian Economy,173,Indian History,10,Indian Polity,202,International Organisation,12,International Relations,143,Invasive Plant,1,January 2024,240,July 2023,281,July 2024,230,June 2022,6,June 2023,268,June 2024,324,March 2024,238,May 2022,17,May 2024,330,Mentorship,2,November 2023,169,October 2023,203,Places in News,2,Science & Technology,135,Science and Technology,95,September 2023,205,UPSC CSE,111,
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Eradicating polio UPSC NOTE
Eradicating polio UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content