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India's climate action strategy UPSC NOTE


  • As the new government settles in, what it does to scale up climate action will affect every Ministry, and every sector

  • Some of its choices would be pivotal to how India structures its economic path in a sustainable way, positions itself as the voice of the Global South at the right tables, and fights for climate finance and justice over the next five years

  • In the next five years, the government must accelerate and show the world that economic development can be sustainable, too. 

  • India should follow the mantra of ‘go higher, go wider, go deeper’ to align its climate leadership with economic prowess.

Proposed three-pronged approach

  • ‘Go higher’ relates to India’s global leadership. The country could, sooner or later, host important international climate summits. 

  • If it were to host the United Nations Conference of Parties in 2028, it would need to be as successful as the G-20 Presidency. 

  • In global negotiations, four years is not that far.

  • It takes at least four to five years to achieve consensus on contentious issues. 

  • Deciding on what could potentially be the big wins in 2028 and socialising these across countries to stitch alliances and allay concerns must start right away. 

  • Alongside, India should continue doubling down on the narrative of equity in international forums, and create leadership space for itself in global institutions that can deliver climate finance

  • ‘Go wider’ means India has to adopt and strongly communicate sectoral emission reduction targets that go beyond the power sector

  • India has achieved significant progress in the power sector and will continue to do so to keep pace with its international non-fossil share-related and domestic renewable energy capacity targets.

  • The next step is to broaden the target to other sectors. 

  • For instance, it could be related to the private mobility space, giving a clear target for zero-carbon two- and four-wheelers. 

  • This is not just an urban India project. 

  • It will help rural India become mobile, drive jobs in clean energy and sustainability, and promote economic growth.

  • Finally, ‘going deeper’ implies that sub-national climate action and resilience must come to the fore in this term of the government. 

  • Some shoots of this are already visible. 

  • The Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) is working across many States in India to support their net-zero plans through long-term climate and energy modelling.

  • The government should think about :

    • creating a Centre-State coordination group, 

    • incentivising State-level climate actions through the Sixteenth Finance Commission, 

    • promoting a deeper integration of scientific modelling capabilities in policymaking, and 

    • facilitating a unified data measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) architecture at the State level. 



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: India's climate action strategy UPSC NOTE
India's climate action strategy UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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