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Convention on Cluster Munitions’ (CCM) UPSC NOTE


  • A cluster bomb or munition is a weapon containing many explosive submunitions (each weighing less than 20 kg) that are designed to explode prior to, on or after impact, according to the global ‘Convention on Cluster Munitions’ (CCM).

  • Cluster munition can vary from several dozens to over 600. 

  • Due to this, the submunitions get dispersed over a large area, remain unexploded for several years and have caused significant civilian casualties as seen in Afghanistan and Iraq.

  • The Convention on Cluster Munitions is a United Nations-adopted legal instrument that prohibits all use, production, transfer and stockpiling of cluster munitions. 

  • The convention was adopted in Dublin, Ireland in 2008, and was opened for signature in Oslo, Norway.

  • It entered into force in 2010 after the requirement of 30 ratifications was complete.

  • Currently, the convention has 111 State Parties and 12 Signatory States.

  • 74 countries are not party to it, including the major countries that manufacture and use cluster munitions. 

  • This includes the U.S., Russia, China, India, Israel, Pakistan and Ukraine and most NATO countries.

  • The Convention prohibits “all use, stockpiling, production and transfer of cluster munitions. 

  • Countries that ratify the convention are obliged to never use cluster munitions, and also to never develop, produce, otherwise acquire, retain, stockpile or transfer to anyone cluster munitions.

  • India has not signed the convention and is not a party to it. 



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Convention on Cluster Munitions’ (CCM) UPSC NOTE
Convention on Cluster Munitions’ (CCM) UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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