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Genome Sequencing UPSC NOTE

 



  • A genome refers to the complete set of genetic material (DNA or RNA) present in an organism. 

  • Genome sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides (building blocks of DNA/RNA) that make up an organism's genome.

  • Genomes carry all the hereditary information needed for the growth, development, and functioning of living organisms. 

  • They contain genes that encode instructions for the synthesis of proteins, as well as non-coding regions with regulatory functions.


  • Genomes can be composed of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid), depending on the organism. 

  • DNA genomes are double-stranded, while RNA genomes can be single-stranded or double-stranded.

  • Genome sequencing has numerous applications in various fields, including medicine, agriculture, evolutionary biology, and biotechnology

  • It helps in understanding genetic diseases, identifying drug targets, studying evolutionary relationships, and improving crop breeding programs.

  • When genomes are newly sequenced, they are compared to a reference map called a reference genome. 

  • This helps us to understand the regions of differences between the newly sequenced genome and the reference genome. 

  • One of this century’s scientific breakthroughs was the making of the first reference genome in 2001. 

  • It helped scientists discover thousands of genes linked to various diseases; better understand diseases like cancer at the genetic level; and design novel diagnostic tests.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Genome Sequencing UPSC NOTE
Genome Sequencing UPSC NOTE
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