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Groundwater Depletion UPSC NOTE


  • Rapid depletion of groundwater has become a common occurrence in north India over the past few decades. 

  • Between 2002 and 2022, approximately 95% of India's groundwater depletion took place in this region. 

  • Groundwater use and variability in summer monsoon rainfall are identified as the primary drivers of groundwater storage.

  • Climate change poses new challenges to groundwater sustainability. 

  • Rising temperatures will lead to increased groundwater pumping for irrigation to meet crop demands. 

  • Additionally, a warming climate will intensify hydroclimate extremes like floods and droughts

  • Increased evapotranspiration due to a warmer climate will also limit water availability for groundwater recovery. 

  • While a warming climate is expected to bring more summer monsoon rainfall to north India, it remains unclear if this alone will be sufficient to compensate for increased water demand for irrigation and loss due to evapotranspiration. 

  • The recovery rates of groundwater may not be fully supported by stronger monsoon rainfall.

  • The recovery of depleted groundwater in north India will be inadequate if groundwater use for irrigation continues at current levels. 

  • high precipitation can contribute to partial groundwater recovery, even with ongoing or increased groundwater extraction. 

  • However, the increase in precipitation may not directly lead to a comprehensive increase in groundwater storage due to the dominant influence of evapotranspiration in the long run and at higher warming levels.

  • To address the issue, it is crucial to restrict unsustainable groundwater use for irrigation

  • Projected increases in groundwater use to meet irrigation requirements can offset the benefits of increased precipitation. 

  • Therefore, relying solely on increased rainfall will not effectively aid groundwater recovery. 

  • Sustainable groundwater conservation practices are essential for long-term sustainability.

  • It is important to enhance irrigation efficiency and consider shifting crop-growing areas to mitigate the adverse effects of drought. 

  • Promoting groundwater conservation is vital for ensuring long-term sustainability, even when increased rainfall can enhance groundwater recharge.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Groundwater Depletion UPSC NOTE
Groundwater Depletion UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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