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India-France Relations UPSC NOTE


India-France relations

  • France became the first country to engage in a Strategic Dialogue with India following India’s nuclear tests in 1998. 

  • Unlike other nations, France chose not to impose bilateral sanctions on India and instead showed a deeper understanding of India’s security concerns.

Economic Cooperation:

  • Collaboration in sectors like manufacturing, infrastructure, and technology.

  • It is the 11th largest foreign investor in India.

  • France has emerged as a key trading partner of India with annual trade of USD 12.42 billion in 2021-22.

Civil Nuclear Cooperation:

  • France was among the first countries with which India signed a civil nuclear deal.

  • Paris also played a critical role in limiting India’s isolation in the non-proliferation order after the 1998 nuclear tests.

  • France even stepped in with uranium supplies to power the Tarapur reactors.

  • India and France inked a civil nuclear pact (2008) making France the first country to have such an agreement after the USA.

Cooperation at International Forum:

  • France’s support for India’s bid for permanent membership in the UN Security Council and Nuclear Suppliers Group.

  • India has supported France in the Paris Agreement.

  • International Solar Alliance

Maritime Ties:

  • Joint Strategic Vision of India-France Cooperation in the Indian Ocean Region.

  • Common vision for a free, fair and open Indo-Pacific.

  • India and France in September 2022 agreed to set up an Indo-Pacific Trilateral Development Cooperation Fund that will support sustainable innovative solutions for countries in the Indo-pacific region.

  • India, France, UAE Trilateral Initiative is aimed at ensuring maritime domain awareness and security from the east coast of Africa to the far Pacific.

Space Cooperation:

  • ISRO-CNES (National Centre for Space Studies) Joint Working Group.

  • Joint Mars Mission

  • Working together on addressing the issue of space debris.

  • Joint Earth Observation Mission - development of a satellite to study the Earth's atmosphere and climate.

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Horizon 2047

  • Strategic road map for the next 25 years — “Horizon 2047” — which includes cooperation in defence, space, nuclear energy, climate change and green transitions as well as education and people-to-people ties.


  • India and France are committed to cooperating in the co-development and co-production of advanced defence technologies, including for the benefit of third countries.

  • Cooperation in advanced aeronautical technologies by supporting the joint development of a combat aircraft engine.

  • industrial cooperation for motorization of heavy-lift helicopters under the Indian Multi Role Helicopter [IMRH] programme with Safran Helicopter Engine, France.

  • Contract being concluded between Safran Helicopter Engine and HAL for the Transfer of Technology of Forging and Castings for the Shakti Engine. 

  • MoU between Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Ltd. (GRSE), and Naval Group France, a leader in European Naval Defence Industry to collaborate in the field of surface ship.

  • India is setting up a Technical Office of the DRDO at its Embassy in Paris.


  • Work together to secure their own economic and security interests.

  • Ensure equal and free access to global commons.

  • Build partnerships of prosperity and sustainability in the region thanks to common development action.

  • Advance the rule of international law.

  • Work with others in the region and beyond and build a balanced and stable order in the region.

  • They have decided to give utmost attention and extend their cooperation to the Pacific, with the close involvement of the French territories of New Caledonia and French Polynesia. 

  • Trilateral cooperation with like-minded partners in the region (example UAE).

  • India and France will work on setting up the Indo-Pacific Triangular Cooperation (IPTDC) Fund aimed at supporting climate and SDG focused innovations and Start-ups from third countries of the Indo-Pacific, with the goal of facilitating the scaling up of green technologies being developed in the region.


  • CNES and ISRO will strengthen their partnership mainly around two structuring axes: climate and environment.

  • Development of the TRISHNA mission and activities within the Space Climate Observatory (SCO) on topics such as water resource management, marine resources and air quality monitoring; space exploration (Mars, Venus), maritime monitoring, launchers and manned flights in connection with India’s Gaganyaan programme. 

Fight against terrorism:

  • Operational cooperation, multilateral action, countering online radicalisation and combating financing of terrorism, 

  • Particularly through the No Money for Terror (NMFT) initiative and the Christchurch Call to Action to Eliminate Terrorist and Violent Extremism Content Online.

  • Work towards the formalisation of cooperation between the National Security Guard (NSG) of India and the Groupe d'intervention de la Gendarmerie nationale (GIGN) of France.

Science, technological innovation and academic cooperation:

  • Scientific cooperation

  • Critical technologies - supercomputing, cloud computing, AIand quantum technologies, including in the framework of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPIA).

  • Health Cooperation

  • Indo-French Campus for Health

  • Cyber Cooperation

  • Digital regulation

  • Cooperation on Digital Technologies

Partnership for the planet:

  • Strengthening energy security to meet our climate objectives.

  • Transition towards a low carbon economy.

  • Electronuclear

  • Decarbonated hydrogen production capacities and regulatory standards.

  • Development of renewable energies.

  • Energy efficiency

  • Sustainable buildings

  • Commitment on the elimination of single use plastic pollution.

Urban and ecological transitions:

  • Support cities by promoting a circular economy with a focus on integrated waste management.

  • Transport & Urban Mobility

  • Social inclusion

People and Culture:

  • Higher education institutions, research centres and private companies to strengthen cooperation in vocational and language training.

  • France reaffirms its ambition to welcome 20,000 Indian students by 2025 and raise this ambition to 30,000 in 2030.

  • "International solidarity volunteering and civic service” scheme to double the number of French volunteers in India and by five the number of Indian volunteers in France by 2025.

  • Cooperation in the field of museums and heritage.

  • Cinema

  • Artistic and literary cooperation

  • Linguistic cooperation



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: India-France Relations UPSC NOTE
India-France Relations UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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