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  • The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a subspecies of leopard native to the Indian subcontinent.

  • It is one of the big cats found in the forests of India, along with the Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Snow leopard, and clouded leopard.

  • The Indian leopard is solitary and active at night, skilled in climbing trees, swimming, running at speeds of 58 km/h, and jumping up to 3 meters vertically.

  • Where tiger populations are high, leopards are less commonly found as tigers become the apex predator, driving leopards to locations with fewer tigers.


  • In some regions, such as Gujarat's Gir National Park, the Indian leopard cohabits with the Asiatic lion, and in the Himalayas, it exists alongside the snow leopard at lower altitudes.

  • The Indian leopard population is listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List and faces threats such as poaching, habitat loss, and human-leopard conflict.

  • Poaching is the most prominent threat to the Indian leopard population, often found in illegal tiger skin hauls.


  • Conservation efforts are underway to protect the Indian leopard population, including the establishment of rescue and rehabilitation centers and raising awareness among humans.

  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of recorded leopards, with 3,421 individuals, accounting for about 26% of the total estimated leopard population in the country.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Leopard UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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