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Map Controversies — India-Nepal UPSC NOTE


Map controversies between India and Nepal

  • A major controversy has broken out in Nepal over a mural depicting the Indian subcontinent landmass in the newly inaugurated Parliament building.

  • The mural has been interpreted as a map of Akhand Bharat or undivided India, which has drawn angry responses from Nepali political leaders across party lines.

  • The mural shows Lumbini, in that map.

  • Nepal considers Lumbini as one of the major cultural centres on the Nepalese map.


  • Lumbini is a village, archaeological site, and place of pilgrimage honored as the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) located in modern-day Rupandehi District of Nepal, near the Indian border. 

  • It was first formally identified as the Buddha's birthsite in 249 BCE by the Mauryan king Ashoka the Great (r. 268-232 BCE).

  • Currently there is no official boundary dispute over Lumbini.

Kalapani Region:

  • Kalapani is a valley that is administered by India as a part of the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand. 

  • It is situated on the Kailash Mansarovar route.

  • Kalapani is advantageously located at a height of over 20,000 ft and serves as an observation post for that area.

  • The Kali River in the Kalapani region demarcates the border between India and Nepal.

  • The Treaty of Sugauli signed by the Kingdom of Nepal and British India (after Anglo-Nepalese War) in 1816 located the Kali River as Nepal's western boundary with India.

  • The discrepancy in locating the source of the Kali river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Map Controversies — India-Nepal UPSC NOTE
Map Controversies — India-Nepal UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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