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Metagenome Sequencing Technology UPSC NOTE

 


Metagenomics

  • Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental or clinical samples by a method called sequencing. 

  • The broad field may also be referred to as environmental genomics, ecogenomics, community genomics or microbiomics.

  • While traditional microbiology and microbial genome sequencing and genomics rely upon cultivated clonal cultures, early environmental gene sequencing cloned specific genes (often the 16S rRNA gene) to produce a profile of diversity in a natural sample. 

  • Such work revealed that the vast majority of microbial biodiversity had been missed by cultivation-based methods.

  • Metagenomics examines the genomic composition of an entire organism, including each of the microbes that exist within it. 

  • It is an important concept for the microbes and the host to be thought of as interdependent and observed as a community, rather than considered to be separate entities.

  • Metagenomics aims to make advancements in environmental and clinical microbiology.

  • But difficulty to make a culture and the genomic diversity of microbes. 

Significance of metagenomics

  • It is hoped that increased understanding of the nature of microbes in the environment could have a significant impact on other sciences and research areas, such as medicine, biology, biotechnology and ecology.

  • Understanding the composition and functional roles of microbial communities in various environments, such as the human gut, soil, oceans, and plants. This knowledge has implications for health, agriculture, and ecology.

  • Investigating the role of microbial communities in human health and disease. 

  • Metagenomic analysis can help identify potential pathogens, study the human microbiome, and understand the impact of microbial dysbiosis on various health conditions.

  • It is rapid and deployed directly on patient samples, without any a priori knowledge of the infectious agent.

  • Identifying novel enzymes, pathways, and metabolic functions from environmental samples, which can be used for industrial processes, such as bioremediation, biofuel production.

  • Assessing the impact of pollution, climate change, and other environmental factors on microbial ecosystems. Metagenomics can provide insights into ecosystem health and aid in conservation efforts.

  • Exploring natural products and bioactive compounds produced by diverse microorganisms in the environment, which may have potential applications in drug development.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Metagenome Sequencing Technology UPSC NOTE
Metagenome Sequencing Technology UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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