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Net-Zero Transition UPSC NOTE

 


  • Net-Zero for vehicles refers to the goal of achieving zero greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles during their entire lifecycle, including both operational and manufacturing phases

  • It is a critical element of the global effort to address climate change and transition to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly transportation system.

  • This requires reducing emissions from both new and existing vehicles.

Types of EVs

  • Electric Vehicle (EV): Any vehicle using an electric drivetrain and drawing power from a portable electrical energy source.

  • Hybrid EV: Combines an internal combustion engine (ICE) with an electrical generator to produce electricity. 

  • Has a small battery as an energy buffer.

  • Full EV (Battery EV): No ICE, hence no tailpipe emissions. 

  • Larger battery, charged only from the grid.

  • Plug-In Hybrid EV: Similar to hybrid but with a larger battery that can be charged from the grid. 

  • Can operate in fully electric mode when the battery has charge.

Electric Vehicles (EVs)

  • Fuel Economy of EVs: Hybrid EVs have 1.5-2x higher fuel economy for city driving and 1-1.5x higher for highway driving compared to conventional ICE vehicles. 

  • Plug-In Hybrid EVs have 3-4x higher fuel economy for short commutes.

  • Net Emissions of Hybrid EVs: Important metric considering well-to-wheel emissions, including tailpipe emissions and emissions from fuel production. 

  • Full EVs have lower emissions with a decarbonized power grid.

  • Life-Cycle Emissions Comparison: Switching to full EVs reduces emissions by 19-34% (sedans) and 38-49% (SUVs) by 2030. 

  • Plug-In Hybrid EVs show 20-23% lower emissions compared to conventional EVs.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Net-Zero Transition UPSC NOTE
Net-Zero Transition UPSC NOTE
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