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  • Open RAN (Radio Access Network) is an architecture for mobile telecommunications networks that aims to disaggregate traditional, proprietary network components and introduce more openness, flexibility, and interoperability.

  • It replaces the traditionally integrated RAN components from a single vendor with a modular and interoperable approach

  • Allowing operators to mix and match hardware and software components from different vendors.

  • The concept of Open RAN promotes vendor neutrality, enabling operators to choose from a wider range of suppliers and avoid vendor lock-in.

  • Open RAN utilizes standardized interfaces and protocols, such as those defined by organizations like O-RAN Alliance, to ensure interoperability between different vendor solutions.


  • It allows for the use of general-purpose hardware, including off-the-shelf servers, in the RAN, reducing costs and increasing flexibility in network deployments.

  • Open RAN promotes innovation and competition by enabling smaller vendors and start-ups to enter the market, fostering a more diverse ecosystem.

  • The architecture facilitates virtualization and software-defined networking (SDN) principles, enabling operators to implement network functions in software and dynamically configure and manage their networks.

  • Open RAN has gained attention and support from governments, industry organizations, and operators as a means to foster network diversity, promote security, and accelerate the deployment of 5G and future network technologies.


  • Challenges for Open RAN include ensuring interoperability and performance across different vendor solutions

  • Addressing concerns around security and reliability, and transitioning from legacy infrastructure to the new architecture.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Open RAN UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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