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Operating System Maya UPSC NOTE

 


Operating System Maya

  • The Defence Ministry has said that they are going to switch to Operating System Maya in all their computers in place of the Microsoft OS to prevent cyber and malware attacks. 

  • Maya would prevent malware attacks and other cyber attacks.

  • OS Maya was built locally based on open-source Ubuntu.

  • Maya was developed by government development agencies within six months. 

  • Maya has the interface and all functionality like Windows and users will not feel much difference as they transition to it. 

  • In addition, an ‘end point detection and protection system’, ‘Chakravyuh’, is also being installed in these systems.

  • Currently, Maya is being installed only in Defence Ministry systems and not on computers connected to the networks of the three Services.

What is Kernel?

  • A kernel is the core of an operating system. It runs on a computer’s Random Access Memory (RAM) and gives the device instructions on how to perform specific tasks.

  • Prior to building the kernel architecture, progammers used to run codes directly on the processor. 

  • In the 1970s, Danish computer scientist Per Brinch Hansen pioneered the approach of splitting what needs to be done by a processor from how it executes that task, thus introducing the kernel architecture in the RC 4000 multiprogramming system. 

  • It separated policy from mechanism in the OS design.

  • This design was monolithic, meaning a single programme contained all necessary codes to perform kernel-related tasks. 

  • This architecture provided rich and powerful abstraction for the underlying hardware. 

  • But it was also large and difficult to maintain as the lines of codes ran in the millions.

  • Limitations in the traditional architecture led to a new kernel design called the microkernel. 

  • This design broke down the monolithic system into multiple small servers that communicate through a smaller kernel while giving more space for user customisations. 

  • This change allowed developers to run patches easily without rebooting the entire kernel. 

  • It did have some drawbacks like larger running memory space and more software interactions that reduced the computer’s performance.

How does it differ from Microsoft’s Windows?

Microsoft’s Windows:

  • Windows is a commercial software sold by Microsoft for a license fee. 

  • It is the most widely used OS, and is easy to install and run. 

  • Devices powered by Microsoft’s OS run on the Windows NT kernel. 

  • Windows runs on a hybrid kernel architecture which is a microkernel design coupled with additional codes that help enhance performance. 

  • Apple’s MacOS also uses a hybrid kernel called XNU. 

Maya:

  • Ubuntu, a Linux OS that was used to build Maya, runs on monolithic architecture. 

  • Linux versions are called “distributions” or “distro”, and they comprise free and open-source software. In fact, Android is also based on the Linux kernel.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Operating System Maya UPSC NOTE
Operating System Maya UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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