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Organ Donation UPSC NOTE


  • Organ donation plays a vital role in addressing public health challenges, especially in a country as populous as India.

  • Organ donation raises various ethical and legal considerations, including consent, allocation of organs, and transplant protocols

  • The shortage of organs for transplantation is a significant problem globally, and it has given rise to illegal organ trafficking and a black market.

Organ Donation Crisis in India

  • India faces a dire shortage of organ donations, particularly cadaver donations, leading to significant consequences.

  • The waiting list for organs has exceeded three lakh patients, with a tragic toll of at least 20 deaths daily due to the scarcity.

  • Data from the Health Ministry reveals that the number of donors (including cadavers) grew from 6,916 in 2014 to a modest 16,041 in 2022

Urgent Need for Increase in Organ Donations

  • India's deceased organ donation rate has remained below one donor per million population for a decade.

  • The critical target is to reach 65 donations per million population, necessitating a substantial boost from the public sector healthcare system.

  • Despite various efforts, living donors make up 85% of all donors in India, highlighting the urgency to train trauma and ICU doctors to encourage families to donate.

Disparity Between Demand and Supply

  • The disparity between organ demand and supply is staggering, with statistics indicating around 70%-75% of donors being women.

  • India needs more educated medical staff to bridge the gap, recognizing brain death and communicating the significance of organ donation.

  • Awareness campaigns have led to improved participation, with notable donor activity in states like Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, and Maharashtra, and high transplant numbers in Tamil Nadu and Telangana.

Saving Lives Through Organ Donation

  • One cadaver can save up to eight lives, two donated kidneys can free patients from dialysis, and one donated liver can assist two patients.

  • Donated lungs, pancreas, and heart can provide second chances to patients.

  • A tissue donor can impact as many as 75 lives by donating various tissues like bone, tendons, skin, corneas, and more.

  • Despite progress, the gap remains significant, and increased education and awareness are key to closing it.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Organ Donation UPSC NOTE
Organ Donation UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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