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Quantum Computing & Computer Security UPSC NOTE

 


Impact of quantum computing on computer security

  • There has been a lot of worry about quantum computing and its potential impact on computer security.

  • Governments and organisations across the world are rushing to develop quantum computing platforms and advanced security algorithms to defend against such machines.

  • One prominent example of the latter is the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardisation project.

  • Much of our current security is based on techniques such as RSA, elliptic curves, Diffie-Hellman key exchange and almost all of them rely on a few “hard” mathematical problems, such as factorisation and the discrete logarithm problem. 

  • Unfortunately, in 1994, Peter Shor developed a quantum algorithm that (with certain modifications) can break all of these with ease.

  • Lov Grover’s quantum algorithm, often be fixed by increasing the key or password lengths.

  • Fortunately, some common “symmetric” security algorithms such as AES are not badly affected. (Symmetric key algorithms use the same password to lock and unlock the information.)

Steps taken

Post-quantum cryptography:

  • Post-quantum cryptography involves exploring alternative techniques to counter vulnerabilities against quantum attacks. 

  • This need is more pressing than it initially sounds because attackers often record messages in case they can break them later. 

  • While Shor’s algorithm poses particular concerns for certain methods, the field has rapidly evolved with promising approaches such as lattice algebra, multivariate cryptography, isogeny-based techniques, and code-based cryptography.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Quantum Computing & Computer Security UPSC NOTE
Quantum Computing & Computer Security UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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