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Quantum Physics UPSC NOTE

 


What is quantum physics?

  • Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at the most fundamental level. 

  • It aims to uncover the properties and behaviors of the very building blocks of nature.

  • Quantum physics tells us that electrons are not particles. Instead, electrons are treated as waves.

  • Like all waves, an electron has a wavelength – the distance after which the wavy pattern repeats. 

  • The shorter an electron’s wavelength, the more energy it holds. 

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What is quantum physics?

  • So a wave that changes smoothly has less energy than a wave that is more corrugated.

Applications

  • Quantum Computers

  • Atomic Clocks

  • Chip-Scale Optical Frequency Combs

  • Atomic Cooling

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Sedition

Law commission’s recommendations on sedition 

Retaining Section 124A:

  • In its 279th Report, the Law Commission of India has recommended the retention of Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code which contains the Law of Sedition.

  • It emphasizes that the colonial origins of a law do not automatically warrant its repeal.

    • The report suggests that the Indian legal system as a whole carries colonial influences.

Punishment:

  • It has also recommended enhanced punishment for this offence in the name of national security.

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Law commission’s recommendations on sedition 

Punishment:

  • While Section 124A provides for a minimum imprisonment of three years, the commission recommends a minimum of seven.

Amendments and Safeguards:

  • The Commission recommends adding a procedural safeguard to Section 124A, requiring a preliminary inquiry by a police officer of Inspector rank before registering an FIR for sedition.

  • Permission from the Central or State Government would be necessary based on the officer's report.

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Law commission’s recommendations on sedition 

Amendments and Safeguards:

  • It proposes incorporating a provision similar to Section 196 (3) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, as a proviso to Section 154 of the same code for procedural safeguards against the use of Section 124A.

  • The Commission suggests amending Section 124A to specify that it penalizes individuals "with a tendency to incite violence or cause public disorder."

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Famous cases

Queen Empress vs Bal Gangadhar Tilak 1897:

  • Bombay Court found Bal Gangadhar Tilak guilty of sedition for writing a couple of articles in Kesari, a Marathi weekly, invoking Shivaji, which was interpreted as exciting disaffection towards the British government.

Kedarnath vs State of Bihar, 1962:

  • Kedarnath decided the constitutionality of sedition. 

  • The Court held that it is constitutionally valid for two reasons. 

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Famous cases

Kedarnath vs State of Bihar, 1962:

  • One, sedition, though an offence against the government, is against the state because

    • The government is a visible symbol of state and

    • The existence of the state will be in jeopardy if the government is subverted. 

  • Second, Article 19(2) imposes restrictions in the interest of the security of the state which has wider amplitude and which includes the law on sedition.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Quantum Physics UPSC NOTE
Quantum Physics UPSC NOTE
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