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Renewable Energy Sources of India UPSC NOTE

 


What are the renewable energy sources of India?

  • The following is the installed capacity for Renewables:

    • Wind power: 42.6 GW

    • Solar Power: 66.7 GW

    • Biomass/Co-generation: 10.2 GW

    • Small Hydro Power: 4.94 GW

    • Waste To Energy: 0.55 GW                           

    • Large Hydro: 46.85 GW

Contribution to power sector

  • India stands 4th globally in Renewable Energy Installed Capacity (including Large Hydro)

  • 4th in Wind Power capacity 

  • 4th in Solar Power capacity (as per REN21 Renewables 2022 Global Status Report). 

  • The country has set an enhanced target at the COP26  of 500 GW of non-fossil fuel based energy by 2030.

  • India’s installed non-fossil fuel capacity has increased 396%  in the last 8.5 years and stands at more than 178.79 Giga Watts (including large Hydro), which is about 43% of the country’s total capacity (as on May 2023).

  • The installed solar energy capacity has increased by 24.4  times in the last 9 years, and stands at 66.7 GW as of  May 2023.

  • The installed Renewable energy capacity (including large hydro) has seen an increase of around 128 % since 2014.  

  • FDI of up to 100% is allowed in the renewable energy industry under the automatic route, with no prior government approval needed.

India’s commitments

  • India has set a target to reduce the carbon intensity of the nation’s economy by less than 45% by the end of the decade,

  • Achieve 50 percent cumulative electric power installed by 2030 from renewables.

  • Achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2070. 

  • India‘s target is to produce five million tonnes of green hydrogen by 2030. This will be supported by 125 GW of renewable energy capacity. 

  • Wind Energy has an offshore target of 30 GW by 2030 with potential sites identified.

National Electricity Plan (NEP) estimates

  • National Electricity Plan (NEP) prepared by the the Central Electricity Authority (CEA).

  • It is a five-year plan that assesses India’s current electricity needs, projected growth, power sources, and challenges.

  • The target to achieve 50 percent cumulative electric power installed by 2030 from renewables. - This target may be achieved early, by 2026-27.

  • The share of non-fossil based capacity is likely to increase to 57.4% by the end of 2026-27 and may likely to further increase to 68.4% by the end of 2031-32 from around 42.5% as on April 2023.

  • Considering the climate vagaries - the available power from renewable energy will only be around 35.04% of the total generated electricity by 2026-27 and 43.96% by 2031-32, the NEP estimates.

Manufacturing Sector In India

  • Currently contributing about 15 percent of the country's GDP.

  • India is the sixth-largest manufacturing economy in the world and contributes 3.1% to the world GDP.

  • Employed about 12% of the total labour force. 

  • Manufactured goods consists of almost 65% of Indian merchandise exports or around 43% of total exports.

  • 35% of all FDI inflow.

Steps taken

Economic Reforms 1991:

  • Reductions in tariffs and the removal of bureaucratic barriers.

  • But did not result in a substantial increase.

  • However, there has been a qualitative change in the sector since 1991, with an impressive increase in the range and quality of products manufactured in the country.

  • The rising quality and variety of the goods produced, without the expansion of manufacturing in relation to the economy, suggests a rising inequality of income.

“Make in India” initiative:

  • In 2014 

  • It emphasised attracting FDI.

  • Additionally, the more recent Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme was introduced to subsidise production in specific sectors.

  • The record of these schemes has not been impressive.

Issues

  • There has been a significant gap in attention to the manufacturing sector in India following the economic reforms of 1991.

  • Low Manufacturing Growth

  • The manufacturing sector has recorded a growth rate of 1.3% which is lower than the growth rates observed in agriculture and various segments of the services sector. (According to advance estimates of the national income for the fiscal year 2022-23).

  • The data provide clear evidence of the impact of the demonetization policy (2016), which contributed to the slowdown of the manufacturing sector. 

  • Other Structural Issues.

Demand Side Problem:

  • The government has more focused on taking measures to improve the supply side only.

  • The focus on improving infrastructure, policy initiatives, and lowering taxes has primarily targeted enhancing the supply capacity and competitiveness of the manufacturing sector.

  • Indian household demand for manufactured goods is closely tied to the satisfaction of basic needs such as food, housing, health, and education, which cannot be postponed.

  • In India, a significant portion of household expenditure is allocated to food, which constrains the growth of demand for manufactured goods.

  • India has a relatively higher share of food expenditure and a lower GDP per capita. This indicates that the demand for manufactured goods may be limited.

Export constraints:

  • Possibility of exporting can help the manufacturing sector overcome limitations of the domestic market demands.

  • Comparisons with East Asian economies show that successful exporting requires infrastructure and a skilled workforce. 

  • Challenges faced by Indian exporters, particularly in the northern regions, in reaching seaports due to inadequate infrastructure and practices. 

  • India's ports have longer turnaround times compared to ports in countries like Singapore.

  • Expensive power

  • Non available space

  • Improper industrial waste disposal services.

Problems in the Education system:

  • Comparison to the countries that have succeeded in manufacturing.

  • India's performance in international assessments like the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranks comparatively low, while the countries of East Asia excel in these assessments.

  • Lack of employability of university graduates.

  • While India's universities have expanded to cater to the aspirations of the middle class, there has been a neglect of vocational training institutes and the development of skills necessary for various skilled trades such as carpentry, plumbing, and mechanics.

  • Former Planning Commission data showed that only about 5% of Indian youth had received any form of technical training, in contrast to South Korea's figure of over 85%

  • Lack of preparedness of the labour force for manufacturing-related jobs.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Renewable Energy Sources of India UPSC NOTE
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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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