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Rivers in Himachal Pradesh UPSC NOTE

 


Giri

  • Giri River is also famous as Giri Ganga and is an important tributary of the Yamuna river.

  • Giri River originates from the hills of Kotkhai and drains at the parts of Himachal in the southeastern areas.

  • It flows through the district of Sirmaur and further merges with the Yamuna River.


Bata

  • Bata River, a tributary of the Yamuna River, originates from the boulders below the Nahan ridge in the south-west corner of Himachal Pradesh.

  • It is mainly fed by the rainwater that is cycled as underground water before finally coming up on the surface as a spring. 

  • The river flows below the surface for a part of its length in its upper reaches, thereafter the water flows on the surface. 


Satluj

  • The Sutlej or Satluj River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. 

  • The Sutlej River is also known as Satadru.

  • It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. 

  • Bhakra Nangal Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Satluj River in Bhakra Village in Himachal Pradesh.

  • The Bhakra Dam is built to provide irrigation and other facilities to the states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana.


  • The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan.

  • Mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India like the Sirhind Canal, Bhakra Main Line and the Rajasthan canal.

  • The drainage basin in India includes the states and union territories of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Ladakh and Haryana.

  • The source of the Sutlej is west of the catchment area of Lake Rakshastal in Tibet, as springs in an ephemeral stream. 

  • Lake Rakshastal used to be part of the Sutlej river basin long ago and separated from the Sutlej due to tectonic activity.

  • The nascent river flows under the Tibetan name Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to the Shipki La pass, entering India in Himachal Pradesh state.

  • Ropar Wetland in Punjab is located on the Sutlej river basin.

  • The Sutlej unites with the Chenab River, forming the Panjnad River, which finally flows into the Indus river.

Tributaries  

  •  Left - Baspa

  •  Right - Spiti, Beas, Chenab

  • Sutlej is an antecedent river, which existed before the Himalayas and entrenched itself while they were rising.



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